Monday, 22 April 2019

Bookshelf: The High Magic of Talismans & Amulets (Lecouteux)





Patreon book number 3, many thanks to the people helping bring quality content!!!

According to the dust jacket, Claude Lecouteux is a former professor of medieval literature and civilization at the Sorbonne. He is the author of numerous books on medieval and pagan beliefs and magic, including The Book of GrimoiresThe Tradition of Household SpiritsA Lapidary of Sacred Stones, and The Secret History of Poltergeists and Haunted Houses. He lives in Paris.

Wiki tells us more, including the long list of books he authored, among which we can find A Lapidary of Sacred Stones. Their Magical and Medicinal Powers Based on the Earliest Sources, Book Of Grimoires: The Secret Grammar of Magic, Dictionary of Ancient Magic Words and Spells: From Abraxas to Zoar and many, many more.

A quick glance at Lecouteux diverse and bizzare portfolio might lead us to think he might be a literary jack of all trades who wants to ”get in on the action” but upon reading his book on amulets I must admit that nothing could be farther from the truth. 

I first came into contact with his work researching talismans, of course, and found a mention of the Ghent manuscript  in this very book: 

which lead me to research it and ultimately find it. Once reading the book I can honestly say that professor Lecouteux`s knowledge of the subject is vaster than my own, even finding a Romanian amulet I was not aware of. 



His book is one of the best-informed works on the subject, with an ample bibliography, wide basis and thorough treatment of the matter bot historically and practically. 

Part One of the book (A Scarcely Catholic Tradition) takes us through the history of the amulet and the talisman, discussing rare species of historical artifacts such as ligamina, obligamenta, periapta, perimmata, periartemata, katadeseis, katadesmoi, kardiphulakion or phylakterion, which are all quite distinct.  From the Graeco-Roman antiquity we slowly move to the medieval period, citing not only the internal literature (the normative literature that advised the amulet writer or the talisman crafter in his work) but also the external literature, that sought to drive out the practices seen as heretical or 
heterodoxical, culminating with the views of Saint Thomas Aquinas on the subject and the protocols of the Theological College of Paris in 1398.  In stark contradiction with these anathemas, as the third chapter expands upon, Christian amulets make their way into the heart of the people, effigies of the cross or other symbols together with scriptural verses taking the place of the odd charakteres of the Late Antiquity. Chapter four is dedicated entirely to one of the great uses of these objects, namely medicine and healing, going through the subject from Antiquity right down to Costa Ben Luca, Arnold of Villanova and Theophrastus Paracelsus, all tributary to the idea that the actions of the macrocosm upon the body can be manipulated by the actions in the microcosm representing the higher forces.



 Part two is not less academical but far more interesting for the practically oriented individual, and thuis core colorful, addressing the praxis of the amulet, the processes involved in the procuring of the raw materials needed, the signs and seals to be written or engraved, the state of mind, soul and body of the operator and the necessary conditions to be fulfilled. Without being a basic how-to book, Lecouteux describes the practical side of the historical phenomenon he treats in the first part, a thing quite unique to an academically inclined work, but all the more laudative. 

His appendices include the seals of the planets, the talismans of Dom Jean Albert Belin, the seals of the planets and the Paranatellons and the creating and consecrating of magical objects. 

Minus Points: The binding and the graphics. The hardback is perfect bound, not sewn, making its opening problematic, as with all modern books. The graphics are something to be desired of unfortunately, but only in some places, and hopefully I can right this wrong by the work I will be doing on publishing these images online, taken from their primary sources. 

Plus Points: A very well informed volume, superbly written. The most comprehensive bibliography on the subject. Although graphically problematic, it`s the first work as far as I know that deals with the Ghent manuscript and a few other figures previously unpublished. A concise and well put together index. A bit of humor, which is always welcomed!

This book is a must-have for any reader of the occult and any researcher of the mentalities that drove our ancestors to do the things they did and even to understand the frame of mind that prompts a cabdriver to fill his dashboard with religious icons and knicknacks. 

Monday, 15 April 2019

Glitch Bottle Podcast

Hope everyone can understand my English in the latest episode of the Glitch Bottle Podcast:



enjoy, and please support the guy on Patreon! 

Sunday, 7 April 2019

Bookshelf: Of Angels, Demons and Spirits (Harms / Clark)




This is Patreon Book nr.2, that is, bought entirely from the donations raised from patrons. Well, not entirely, I covered the shipping and handling because I wanted to get something truly unique, so I asked Dan Harms if he would sell me a copy personally in order to have his signature as well:



I`m sure he understands the importance of people signing in your book to make it more special :D

Is this volume truly a `sourcebook` as the title describes it? Yes, yes it is, one thousand times YES!   I`ve never come across newer material when it comes to ritual magic texts since the publication of the Book of Oberon (also his) and I must say that I`ve been waiting its publication with my heart pounding ever since I saw the announcement. 

Contents:

OAD&S is a complete transcript and translation of the 17th century British manuscript called E. Mus 173. Not many things are known about its author, but there is a chance that he might be Thomas Allen, `astrologer, scholar, tutor and reputed wizard`. 

The author introduces us gradually to the 17th century English magical milieu and mindset, with a great chapter on magic and witchcraft, cunning folk, published works on magic and manuscripts, sliding ever so gently into the cosmology and theological framework that underpins the said beliefs, analysing (briefly but comprehensively) the role of angels, demons, fairies, ghosts, planetary spirits and witches in the system that the manuscript employs. 

The manuscript itself contains one of the most diverse collection of invocations, experiments and figures ever encountered. 

It's important to know that some magic books were brief sections, from one to several pages long, dealing with specific subjects, and not whole books as we are used to call them, something passed down from Arabic magic. 

Some of the most well-known books or experiments in E.Mus.173, shared with other manuscripts, would be:

-The Consecration of the Book 
-The experiment of Mosacus
-The experiments of Asazell, Askariell and Alkates
-The experiment of the Four demonic Bishops (Teltron, Spirion, Boytheon and  Maveryon) for theft.
-the binding of the spirit Bilgal to a crystal
-the  Roman experiment of William Bacon.
-many many others, with a wealth a small gems gathered from here and there, the sources ranging from the works of Agrippa and Pseudo-De Abano to the Thesaurum Necromanticum and the work on the seven rings of Messahala I am currently translating. 

Some sections, however, present a great interest, being either completely new to us of very interesting versions of previously published materials: at least three books functioning as catalogues of spirits, of which two contain a great wealth of seals and one is the fabled De Oficiis Spirituum, the grandfather-text of the Goetia.



Seal of the spirit Azoel, fol56v

I cannot stress enough the importance of these textual versions, because they prove to be an important link in the transmission of magical texts from the age of the manuscript knowledge to the age of published materials.  The two other spirit lists are virtually unknown and I believe they have not been translated thus far and they bear striking resemblances with the Book of Bileth and the Testament of Solomon, the spirits being presented with their rank and powers in the first person.

Through a collective effort I have managed to raise the money necessary to pay the Bodleian Library for the publication of the original diagrams and seals, and I will publish them when time allows. 

Minus points: 
1. The graphics are modern and do not keep the original. There`s good reason for this, such as the high price of the original images themself, as I myself have learned, but this shortcoming has been turned into an advantage. 
2. Unfortunately, the binding, my nemesis... The book is gild-stamped on the inner cover, dust jacketed, the pages are superbly printed, two inks, quality paper, but the book is glued (perfect binding) not sewn. But that's not an issue with anyone except nitpicky bibliophiles and bookbinders such as myself. So it wouldn't be a problem. And yes, I will still bind it in full leather. 



Plus points: 
1. The graphics. As I mentioned, the original images could not be reproduced (not without a sizeable sum of money invested, and as we know, books on magical manuscripts that deal with treasure hunting are no way to get yourself rich, ironically enough). But the job done by James Clark is so precise, well-cut and still faithful to the original, even an imagistic purist like myself is pleased and will take his hat off to the illustrator. 




2. The book itself is one of the most important published so far, in my opinion, bringing forth material that has never before the light of print. 

and 3, the humor, well placed for keen readers: 

The author and publisher make no claim that the spirits Zorobaym or Benias are present in this book, nor that the spirits Satrapis, Beluginis and Baramptis will return it if you lose it. 

All in all, one of the books of the year, if not the decade. A must-have for any serious researcher on the subject or magic aficionado. 

Thursday, 7 February 2019

The Book of Bileth (Hebrew)

1. Preamble

In his Pseudomonarchia Daemonum (Peterson), the source of the more popular Goetia,  Weyer has this to say about Bileth:

§ 20. Byleth Rex magnus & terribilis, in equo pallido equitans, quem præcedunt tubæ, symphoniæ, & cuncta Musicæ genera. Quum autem coram exorcista se ostentat, turgidus ira & furore videtur, ut decipiat. Exorcista vero tum sibi prudenter caveat: Atque ut fastum ei adimat, in manu suscipiat baculum corili, cum quo orientem & meridiem versus, foris juxta circulum manum extendet, facietque triangulum. Cæterum si manum non extendit, & intrare jubet, atque spirituum Vinculum ille renuerit, ad lectionem progrediatur exorcista: mox ingredietur item submissus, ibi stando & faciendo quodcunque jusserit exorcista ipsi Byleth regi, eritque securus. Si vero contumacior fuerit, nec primo jussu circulum ingredi voluerit, reddetur forte timidior exorcista: Vel si Vinculum spirituum minus habuerit, sciet haud dubie exorcista, malignos spiritus postea eum non verituros, at semper viliorem habituros. Item si ineptior sit locus triangulo deducendo juxta circulum, tunc vas vino plenum ponatur: Et intelliget exorcista certissimè, quum è domo sua egressus fuerit cum sociis suis, prædictum Byleth sibi fautorem fore, benevolum, & coram ipso submissum quando progredietur. Venientem vero exorcista benigne suscipiat, & de ipsius fastu glorietur: Propterea quoque eundem adorabit, quemadmodum alii reges, quia nihil dicit absque aliis principibus. Item si hic Byleth accitus fuerit ab aliquo exorcista, semper tenendus ad exorcistæ faciem annulus argenteus medii digiti manus sinistræ, quemadmodum pro Amaymone. Nec est prætermittenda dominatio & potestas tanti principis, quoniam nullus est sub potestate & dominatione exorcistæ alius, qui viros & mulieres in delirio detinet, donec exorcistæ voluntatem explerint: Et fuit ex ordine Potestatum, sperans se ad septimum Thronum rediturum, quod minus credibile. Imperat octogintaquinque legionibus. 

(20) Bileth [Byleth] is a great king and a terrible, riding on a pale horsse, before whome go trumpets, and all kind of melodious musicke. When he is called up by an exorcist, he appeareth rough [turgid] and furious, to deceive him. Then let the exorcist or conjuror take heed to himself; and to allaje his courage, let him hold a hazell bat [rod, staff, or stick] in his hand, wherewithall he must reach out toward the east and south, and make a triangle without besides the circle; but if he hold not out his hand unto him, and he bid him come in, and he still refuse the bond or chain of spirits; let the conjuror proceed to reading, and by and by he will submit himselfe, and come in, and doo whatsoever the exorcist commandeth him, and he shalbe safe. If Bileth the king be more stubborne, and refuse to enter into the circle at the first call, and the conjuror shew himselfe fearfull, or if he have not the chaine of spirits, certeinelie he will never feare nor regard him after. Also, if the place be unapt for a triangle to be made without the circle, then set there a boll of wine, and the exorcist shall certeinlie knowe when he commeth out of his house, with his fellowes, and that the foresaid Bileth will be his helper, his friend, and obedient unto him when he commeth foorth. And when he commeth, let the exorcist receive him courteouslie, and glorifie him in his pride, and therfore he shall adore him as other kings doo, bicause he saith nothing without other princes. Also, if he be cited by an exorcist, alwaies a silver ring of the middle finger of the left hand must be held against the exorcists face, as they doo for Amaimon. And the dominion and power of so great a prince is not to be pretermitted; for there is none under the power & dominion of the conjuror, but he that deteineth both men and women in doting [better: "foolish" or "silly"] love, till the exorcist hath had his pleasure. He is of the orders of powers, hoping to returne to the seaventh throne, which is not altogether credible, and he ruleth eightie five legions.

The Book of Bileth is not mentioned in his description, but rather that of Gaap (Tap):

ductor est præcipuorum quatuor regum, tam potens ut Byleth. Extiterunt autem quidam necromantici, qui huic libamina & holocausta obtulere, & ut eundem evocarent, artem exercuere, dicentes sapientissimum Salomonem eam composuisse, quod falsum est: imo fuit Cham filius Noë, qui primus post diluvium cœpit malignos invocare spiritus, invocavit autem Byleth, & composuit artem in suo nomine, & librum, qui multis mathematicis est cognitus. Fiebant autem holocausta, libamina, munera, & multa nefaria, quæ operabantur exorcistæ admistis sanctissimis Dei nominibus, quæ in eadem arte sparsim exprimuntur. Epistola vero de iis nominibus est conscripta à Salomone, uti & scribunt Helias Hierosolymitanus & Heliseus. Notandum, si aliquis exorcista habuerit artem Beleth, nec ipsum coram se sistere possit aut videre, nisi per artem: Quomodo autem eundem continere oporteat, non est explicandum, quum sit nefandum, & nihil à Salomone de ejus dignitate & officio didicerim, 

 He is the guide of the foure principall kings, as mightie as Bileth. There were certeine necromancers that offered sacrifices and burnt offerings unto him; and to call him up, they exercised an art, saieng that Salomon the wise made it. Which is false: for it was rather Cham, the sonne of Noah, who after the floud began first to invocate wicked spirits. He invocated Bileth, and made an art in his name, and a booke which is knowne to manie mathematicians. There were burnt offerings and sacrifices made, and gifts given, and much wickednes wrought by the exorcists, who mingled therewithall the holie names of God, the which in that art are everie where expressed. Marie [Certainly] there is an epistle of those names written by Salomon, as also write Helias Hierosolymitanus and Helisæus. It is to be noted, that if anie exorcist have the art of Bileth, and cannot make him stand before him, nor see him, I may not bewraie how and declare the meanes to conteine him, bicause it is abhomination, and for that I have learned nothing from Salomon of his dignitie and office. 



I have employed the help of Rabbi Yosef Michael Cohen  in order to translate the version of the book contained in the Hebrew Sepher Mafteach Schelomoh, with the seals cleared up and enhanced. Here follows his work.  The Italian version, kindly made known to me by Daniel Clark, will be published separately. I am also in the process of obtaining Jean-Patrice Boudet s version of the Liber Bileth, through the help of Dan Schneider. A special thanks to  Dr. Stephen Skinner who long ago, upon finding about my plans to work on this text, sent me on his own expense a signed copy of the Teitan Press edition of the book. The only person working with the material offered by the book, to my knowledge, is Gal Sofer, who is preparing material to be published on it currently and actually did quite some research on Bilet, whose work we are all eagerly awaiting. 




2. Preface 
by Rabbi Yosef M. Cohen, translator


The following short grimoire, translated to English for the first time is found in four manuscripts of the Key of Solomon. This grimoire is entitled as “Sefer Billet” (The Book of Billet) both at the beginning and end of the text and is clearly a distinct work in it’s own right. The following translation is that of the Gollancz mss. and reference to the mss. folio numbers are noted in brackets. With the exception of one instance noted in the text, only minor textual variances were noted between the Hebrew manuscripts. The magical seals were uniform and consistent throughout. Many thanks to Mr. Daniel Clark for bringing to my attention and providing copies of the British Library and St Andrews manuscripts. A fuller, critical edition of all textual variations will be forthcoming in conjunction with Mr. Mihai Vartejaru who will be examining the Italian version.

The manuscripts
The Herman Gollancz mss. (Hebrew)
 (Amsterdam) Universiteitsbibliotheek MS Rosenthal 12 (Hebrew)
British Library ms Or 14759 (Hebrew)
 University of St Andrews msBF1608.S7 (Italian)

Contents
A total of twenty eight adjurations to various demonic authorities (many labeled as princes) or their attendants. Each adjuration is followed with a set of magical seals. The grimoire does not give specifics on how to perform the operations.


 The Book of Billeit

English translation of the Hebrew by Rabbi Yosef M. Cohen
 © 2019 All rights reserved. May be distributed only for non-commercial, including private and/or academic, use.


ספר בילט 
Sefer Billet 
(The Book of Billeit)



 [fol. 46a] I am Billet the great, god of the east. I am prepared to answer all your questions that you shall ask and fullfil your wants, desires and cravings. Ask anything from me, and I shall do it immediately.




I am Ashmodai, king of the south and the great philosopher. If you desire to know intercalculations, the hooks (?) and future events - behold, I am prepared to answer and explain your uncertainties.   : And know, all the sigils are from right to left as in the Latin script



I am “so and so” Maimun the great, who has the keys to the garments and treasuries in my hands. Whatever you ask and desire –command me, and I shall do it for you immediately.



Behold, we are prepared to break the frames of the garments and the hidden treasuries. Come to the place where it is in the treasury. Decree upon us, and we will do it immediately. [fol. 46b]

[fol. 46a] I am Angbot the great and I have the ability and strength to take one out from prison or place him there instantaneously. 


Behold, we are prepared to remove anyone from prison. Moreover, we can disassemble all iron utensils [Rabbi Y.M.C.: most probably a reference to iron fetters and shackles] in order save him.



I am Berimonai ruler of coition, love and hatred; ruler of friendship and strife. Decree as you wish, and I shall do it immediately.


Behold, we are prepared to bring to you a woman you desire out of love into your hand and to the location you want to come upon her. Ask, and we will bring her there immediately.




I am Faevivantz king of the north, the great judge. Judgement will be for everyone according to your want and desire.  If you wish to avenge [yourself] from one or more, decree and it shall be done instantaneously.


Behold, we are prepared to take revenge on anyone you wish, whether justifiable or unjustifiable so, according to your desire. Decree, and speedily we shall do it for you instantaneously.



[fol. 47a] I am Dorekush, ruler of the air. Doer of wondrous feats to the land; bringer of rains, hail and the sound of thunder. [I am the] Remover of bad or good seasons. Decree, and I shall do for you immediately.


Behold, we are prepared to produce bad seasons and air pollution or remove them. Likewise, regarding lighting, hail or rain. Decree as you desire, and it shall be done immediately.


I am Geliael, the great commander of the armies. If you desire to speak and make a request from the military commanders and have them give it to you, even if you request thousands of thousands [of soldiers].


Behold, we are prepared to listen to your command to see you ( them) in any location that you wish and desire. [Whether it be] towers, distinguished cities or shortening the siege that they are under from innumerable soldiers. Decree, and immediately we will do for you.



I am the commander of the army and the stockpiles. If you wish to see all the locations of armed soldiers, decree and I will show you –even if you desire [to see] thousands of thousands.


Behold, we are prepared to listen to your command. If you wish to see all the locations of armed soldiers, decree and I will show you –even if you desire [to see] thousands of thousands. Decree, and it will immediately be done for you.



I am Gelaimael the great lord of the rivers. If you desire to place before a man a wondrous river at any location you wish, decree and so it shall be.


[fol. 47b] Behold we are prepared to make rivers and fish within them as you wish in any location you want. Decree, and so we shall do this for you.



I am Kaloai the great and wondrous king. If you desire to instantly travel to and dwell in a distant city, behold, I am prepared to bring you or others there. Decree and immediately I will do this for you.


Behold, we are prepared to transport any person you desire to a distant location and to return him as is your heart’s desire. Decree and immediately it will be done for you.



I am the great Balabulkosh  throne [of] Balditzash the prince. If you desire to frighten a person or to exact revenge, decree and immediately we will do this for you.


Behold, we are prepared to frighten, startle or exact revenge as you desire; decree, and immediately we will do this for you.



I am Vayvovish (Waywowish?) throne [of] Shafarsh the great prince. If you wish to build or destroy a tower or city, decree and immediately it will be done for you.



Behold, we are prepared to build or destroy fortified towers or cities, or to place fortification upon them. Ask according to your desire and immediately it will be done for you.
[fol. 48a]

I am Mitazin the great and distinguished philosopher. If you wish to know all natural sciences and have the strength to learn all there is to learn, decree and I will do this immediately.



Behold, we are prepared to write down all that you desire. Even should you wish for the philosophic [writings], decree, and immediately we will do this for you.




I am Talkosh. If you desire a set time and it should be with you for two or three days, decree and I will do it immediately.
[Variant text from British Library ms Or 14759:  I am Talkosh the great. I am prepared to revive the dead to whom you desire. If you wish, you can give them a set time, such as two or three years. Decree, and I will do it immediately.]


Behold, we are prepared to revive from the dead whomever you wish and they will answer all that you ask from them. Decree, and we will do this for you immediately.

I am Aktalash the great prince of the sea and winds. If you desire to see ships and boats on the ocean or rivers, ask according to your desire and I shall do this for you immediately.
Behold, we are prepared to bring forth ships and boats for you on the seas and rivers as you desire. Decree and we shall do this for you immediately.



תם ונשלם ספר בילט  
Complete and finished, the Book of Billet






Tuesday, 29 January 2019

Seals and characters from Pal.Lat.1196

For further information on this manuscript, see the main article. I have omitted the simple astrological and mantical diagrams, that can be considered simple geometrical constructions because they  bare no importance to the study of image and seal magic. 

Although interesting, I have also omitted the characters in the Lapidarius (15v-24v) because they are small, unclear and often hard to separate and discern from the text and its scribal notae. 

For a free PDF of this article ready-to-print-and-study, please go here, or on Scribd

Please do not save, copy and reproduce these images commercially. They are otherwise free for academic or personal use. Thank you. 



 1. De Quattor Annulis Salomonis


1.The first ring. fol. 1v



2.The second ring. fol. 1v (left image partially absconded by a strip of hanji paper meant as mend most likely)


3.The third ring. fol. 2r



4.The fourth ring. fol. 2r







 2. Belenus: De imaginibus planetarum
Fol.3v. Although the library`s list of contents place this sequence of signs right between two tracts titled De Imaginibus Planetarum, there seem to be a lot more sections quoting different authors: Belenus, Hermes, Thebeyth, Bolen, signs occur, then Hermes again and three times Theozgrecus. 



1.The image of the Moon and its characters:  




2.The image of Jupiter and its characters: 



3.The image of the Venus and its characters: 



4.The image of Saturn and its characters: 



5.The image of the Sun and its characters: 



6.The image of Mars and its characters: 



7.The image of Mercury and its characters: 



To be identified, most probably different version of the Mercury glyph:

1




2




3




4 










 3.De annulis septem planetarum Salomonis
127v
All the characters are placed in rectangular rubriques, which have been eliminated. The characters on the ring of Jupiter are placed last, oriented vertically, and the top part (far right) has less visibility due to the page`s curve, which I tried to augment. The order seems odd but it is kept as it is in the manuscript at a left-to-right reading.

1.The Ring of Saturn 




2.The Ring of Mars



3.The Ring of Venus



4.The Ring of Mercury



5.The Ring of Saturn Moon



6.The Ring of Sun 



7The Ring of Saturn Jupiter



4. De annulis septem planetarum Salomonis
127v


After the set of characters above we have another set, presumably from another tract beginning in the marginalia, attributed to Solomon, not so neatly drawn and enclosed, but more hastily written and with great differences in size. The interesting thing is that we have two sets of characters that are related: a very close resemblance to the characters in Wellcome Ms.110 fol 110r and a similarity with the first set of characters associated to the tables in the Book of Thaytamen, although mirrored. 

1.The Image of the Sun and its characters 



2.The Image of Venus and its characters 



3.The Image of Mercury and its characters 



4.The Image of the Moon and its characters 



5.The Image of Saturn and its characters 



6.The Image of the Jupiter and its characters 



7.The Image of the Mars and its characters 











5.De annulis septem planetarum Salomonis
128v-r

1. The seal of the Sun



2. The seal of Mercury




3. The seal of the Moon




4. The seal of Jupiter




5. The seal of Mars


6. The seal of Saturn



7. The seal of Venus








  6.De annulis septem planetarum Salomonis
128v-134r



Although listed under the same name, I believe on 128v we have the start of another tract. The characters lead me to believe that this is the same treatise found in CLM849 of which I wrote about here. 
Since I don't have a legible text and I`m not inclined at the moment to make a full transcript of the text, I have not assigned the characters their signifficants. As far as I can tell, Character set 1 is Saturn, 2 is Jupiter, etc, but currently that is as far as I can pinpoint them. The origin is Arabic most assuredly, after the names of the planets (Zoal, Almusterij, etc).  Set 6-12 seem to be in the same spirit and might be related. Their limitations might not be precise due to line continuity and their general look is of Arabic code.  Sets 15-17 might be one set. Set 19 is attributed to Saturn and set 20-21 to the Moon (these have the characters on the far right partially absconded by the page fold). 

Character set 1


 Character set2


Character set 3



Character set 4



Character set 5



Character set 6



Character set 7



Character set 8



Character set 9



Character set 10



Character set 11



Character set 12




Character set 13


 Character set 14


Character set 15



Character set 16



Character set 17



Character set 18



Character set 19



Character set 20



Character set 21



Character set 22



















7.Belenus: De imaginibus planetarum
Fols.165r-v

I have not managed to identify correctly this short text nor the nature of the characters, but it seems to be another version of a treatise attributed to Belenus. Except for the first character, placed outside the text with a manicula, the rest of the 9 characters are inclosed in a rectangular box. They resemble classical medieval magical characters very little, but do bare a striking resemblance to hebreao-arabic magical characters with circlets. 

Character No.1

Character No.2

Character No.3

Character No.4


Character No.5


Character No.6


Character No.7


Character No.8


Character No.9


Character No.10









 8. Belenus: De imaginibus planetarum
165v

Arabic names corrupted, the classical Arabic transliteration of the name of the planet is placed in square brackets. 

1. Saturn
Zoal .1. [Zuhal]



2. Jupiter
Almustery .2. [Al-Mushtari]



3. Mars
Almerych .3. [Al-Marikh]



4. Sun
Ayenis .4. [Ash-Shams]



5. Venus
Azocra .5.  Azoera.5. [Az-Zuhra]



6. Mercury
Anchaharich .6. [Awtarid]



7. Moon
Alkamus .7. Alkamur .7. [Al-Qamar]




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