Saturday, 11 April 2020

The Rings of Messalah: The Darmstast Version

Seals of the eight rings, extracted from the magical circle 

O. Disclaimer: 

Since the publication of the fragments pertaining to this work I have been asked several naïve questions pertaining to the efficacy and validity of the results obtained by these experiments. I feel it is necessary to mention that this is merely a historical study of the magical methods described in such texts and not a practical manual. This editor makes no claims about their efficacy, veracity and does not wish to debate the morality of the results or of ethics of ritual animal sacrifice. Except for people who steal my work, both texts and images, without my consent, I do not like no to hex, curse or slaughter and exsanguinate living beings. 

1. Source

After my blog post on the Darmstadt manuscript, I interrupted work on it, until the present article. Researching it further, I came upon an article by Mario Ponzi  mentioning it, but more importantly, quoting Vittoria Perrone Compagni on it. She seems to validate my assessment that the manuscript is from the 15-16th century, more precisely to the first half of the 16th century, with the addition that it was most likely written or compiled in Florence, according to the filigranological evidence. 

In Hs.1410, on fols.14v-19r, we have the most complete version (so far, at least) of the Liber Annulorum Septem Planetarum Sapientem Messahala, that is, The book of Ring of the Seven Planets of the Sage Messahala, about 4 or 5 times larger than the longest version, with countless detail that help us complete the puzzle of this often overlooked work.  

2. Text and translation

[1] Incipit liber Annulorum Septem Planetarum Sapientem Messahala Philosophum Prologus.
Signi Admirabilis Incipit Experimentum. Et dix Messahala: Indus Incipiam cum adiutorem Dei altissimi explanare signum admirabilis explanationem. Dicitur autem admirabilis quia per ipsum mira breviter fiera poterunt nec per librorum nigromatorum et astrologorum noticiam sed in isto libro non est necesse ad tale quod considerare et propter hoc signum est mirabile in quo secreta sunt altissimi et in quo tanta vis philosophorum consista. Et est [15r] signum per quod omnia possunt fieri breviter et sciri fiat ad amorem, ad nuptias, ad honores, proferendo fructus cum non sit tempus et ad invisibilitatem et concursus aquarum in locis sicis. Operatur namque per illud indi, caldei, egiptij et prudentes babilonis.

[1] Here begins the book of the Seven Planetary Rings of the Sage Messahala, with the philosopher`s prologue.
This experiment starts with an admirable sign. And so sayeth Messahala: We begin therefore with the help of the most-high God, detailing the admirable sign`s explanation. We shall say of it admirable for through it, concise wonders can be brought forth, that I have not found neither in the books of the necromancers nor those of the astrologers, but solely in this book, and there is no need to consider others because this sign that is close to us is most  wonderous, and contains in it the highest secrets and constitutes a great power of the sages.  And it is [15r] the sign by which all can be made to come to pass quickly or to be known, be it for love, for marriages, for honors, for producing fruits when it is not their season and for invisibility and for making water flow in barren places. By this the Indians, and the Chaldeeans and the prudent Babilonians have worked.

[2] Primus annulus est Solis et fit ex auro die Solis et hora Solis, cum karactere Solis1  et nomina angeli eis Cyrorax, eadem hora perfectus.

[2] The first ring is that of the Sun and is to be made in gold, on the day of the Sun and at the hour of the Sun1, with the character of the Sun and the name of its angel Cyroarax, to be finished in the same hour.

[3] Secundus annulus est Lune. Fit ex argento die Lune et hora Lune, cum karactere Lune et nomen angeli eius Cameleon, eadem hora perfectus. 

[2] The second ring is that of the Moon. It is to be made in silver, on the day of the Moon and hour of the Moon, with the character of the Moon and the name of its angel Cameleon, to be finished in the same hour.

[4] Tertius annulus est Martis et fit ex ere, die Martis et hora Martis cum karactere eiusdem et nomen angeli eius Corniger2, eadem hora perfectus.  

[4] The third ring is that of Mars and is to be made in brass, on the day of Mars and at the hour of Mars, with its character and the name of its angel Corniger2, to be finished in the same hour.

[5] Quartus annulus est Mercurij et sit ex cupro3, die et hora Mercurij cum karactere eius et nomen angeli eius Ypaton, eadem hora perfectus.    

[5] The fourth ring is that of Mercury and is to be made in copper3, the day and  hour of the Mercury with its character and the name of its angel Ypaton, to be finished in the same hour.

[6] Quintus annulus est Jovis et fit ex argento vel stanno vel electro, hora Jovis et die eius, cum karactere eius et nomen angeli eius Phytoneus, eadem hora perfectus.

[6] The fifth ring is that of Jupiter and is to be made of silver or tin or electrum, in the hour of Jupiter and on its day, with its character and the name of its angel Phytoneus, to be finished in the same hour.

[7] Sextus annulus est Veneris et fit ex plumbo, die et horaque Veneris, cum karactere et nomine angeli eius Abanystra, eadem hora perfectus.    

[7] The sixth ring is that of Venus and is to be made of lead, [on the] day and hour of Venus, with it character  and the name of its angel Abanystra, to be finished in the same hour.

[8] Septimus annulus est Saturni et fit ex ferro, die Saturni et hora eius cum karactere et nomine angeli eius Galatia, eadem hora perfectus.    

[8] The seventh ring is that of Saturn and is of iron, [on the] day of Saturni and its hour, with the character and the name of its angel Galatia, to be finished in the same hour.

 [9] Annulus Capitis Draconis fit ex calibe, die Solis et hora eius cum karactere et nomine angeli eius Arcaryamanan, eadem hora perfectus.  

[9] The ring of the Head of the Dragon is of steel, [on the] day of the Sun and its hour, with the character and the name of its angel Arcaryamanan, to be finished in the same hour.

[10] Primus annulus valet ad omnium bonorum augmentum et ad habendum equum mirabilem que ubique te portabit.

[10] The first ring serves in all good augmentations and for having a miraculous horse that will carry you anywhere.

[11] Secundus annulus valet ad omne opus quod exercetur in aquis et super aquas et ad arbores fructificandas cum non fit tempus.

[11] The second ring serves in all works that are done in water or over waters and in making trees bear fruits when its not their time.

[12] Tertius annulus valet ad omne opus prelij movendi et ad milites imperandos.  

[12] The third ring serves in all works of making battle and in commanding soldiers.

[13] Quartus annulus valet ad omne opus licitum vel illicitum obtinendum et ad omnes ludos ludibros soluendum et faciendum et ad tradita alias perdita recuperandum.  

[13] The fourth ring serves in all works of obtaing by licit or illicit means and in ceasing all mockeries and in revealing or getting back all lost tings. 

[14] Quintus annulus valet ad faciendum redire omnes denarius quos expendideris vel quecquid aliud dederis.

[14] The fifth ring serves in making all coins that you or any other have spent come back.

[15] Sextus annulus valet ad omnis persone amorem subito obtinendum. 

[15] The sixth ring serves in immediately gaining the love of any person.

[16] Septimus annulus valet ad discordia et odium seminandum inter quoscumque.

[16] The seventh ring serves in sowing discord and hatred between whomever.

[17] Octavus annulus valet ad personam qualibet infortunandam et ad potum venenandum.

[17] The eighth ring serves in [making] any person unfortunate and in poisoning drinks.

[18] Annulus Solis habeatur in quolibet sacrificio et annulus uniuscuiusque planete ad opus uniuscuiusque et nomen spiritis planete et karacter angeli itaque tam in memoria quem in lingua continue habeantur4. Item omnem sacrificium fiat intra circulum qui infra reperitur cum suis karacteribus et nominibus et in medio sedens magister dicat sic orando:
“O tu angele N. sacrificium tue laudis suscipe.”
Et hec dicens perijciat holocaustum5 extra circulum et in qualibet oratione nomen angeli invocetur. Item caute et mundissime teneatur; nec in die nec in nocte aperiatur donec operis necessitas inveniet item omne experimentum [15v] fiat luna crescent pari numero die6 et hora debita scilicet hora planete et die cuius opus est.

[18] The ring of the Sun you shall have in all sacrifices, with the ring of each planet at the work of each one and you shall keep the name of the spirit of the planet and its angel`s character in your mind as well as upon your tongue continuously4. Also all sacrifices shall be inside the circle that is shown below, wuth its characters and names and in its midst shall the master being seated, thus praying:
“O thou angel N., receive this sacrifice made to your praise!”  
And saying this, throw the burnt offering5 outside the circle and in each oration invoke the name of the angel. Also, keep [the seal] carefully and clean, and do not open it neither by day nor by night until the work requires it, and also look that in all experiments [15v] the Moon be waxing, and the day be of an even number6 and the hour be proper, that is, the hour of the planet and the day [of the planet] of whose work it is.

[19] Experimentum primum. Prima operatio horum praeceptorum  scilicet: Si volueris habere equum qui te vel alium nuncium tuum7 portet in momento quocumque volueris et reportet, ieiuna in die dominico usque ad noctem. In noctem vero facias holocaustum de ave non domestica prope littus aquae currentis et cum sanguine eius scribe karactere Solis in carta virginea et tecum porta et cum volueris operari per te vel alium experimentum hoc, depinge karacterem Solis in terra et nomen Angeli eius et veniet equus niger qui te portabit quocumque volueris tene tamen cartam suprascriptam in manu tua dextra et annulus in digito quarto manus8 tue sinistre.

[19] The first experiment. The first operation of these precepts, that is: if you want to have a horse that will carry you or any other messanger7 of yours in a moment wherever you want and return, fast on the Lord`s Say until nightfall. At night truly, make a burnt offering of a non-domestic bird near the bank of a flowing water and with its blood write the character of the Sun on virgin paper and bear it with you and when you want to operate for you or for any other this experiment, draw the character of the Sun on the earth and the name of its angel and a black horse shall come to you which will carry you wherever you want, nevertheless holding the above-said paper in your right hand and the ring on the fourth finger8 of your left hand.  

[20] Experimentum secundum seu: cum ergo volueris hoc experimentum operari ieiunabis in die lune usque ad noctem; in nocte vero facias holocaustum de anguilla fluvial in trivio9 et cum sanguine eius scribe karacteres et nomen angeli lune et in pelle catuli involue et in pelle anguille et serva. Cum autem volueris que appareat flumen vel arbor cum fructibus vel naves pugnantes scribe in terra nomen angeli lune et karacterem eius et nomina ea quae volueris nominare anguille carta10 aperta et apparebunt tibi. Cum autem volueris que dispareant, claude cartam et non apparebunt amplius donec renoves experiment.

[20] The second experiment or: when therefore you will want to work this experiment, fast in the day of the Moon until nightfall; at night truly, make a burnt offering of a river eel at a threefold crossroads9 and with its blood write the characters and the name of the angel of the Moon and in a whelp`s skin (sic) and [wrap it] in eel skin and keep it safe. However, when you will want to make a river appear, or a tree bearing fruits or fighting ships, write on the earth the name of the angel of the Moon and name that which you want to name with the paper10 opened and it will appear to you. However, when you want it to disappear, close the paper and and it will appear to you non more until you renew the experiment.

[21] Experimentum tertium. Tertia operatio istis artis est ad faciendum apparere quando volueris homines vel milites armatos vel non armatos et castra pugnatia et etiam ludos omnes ludibiles velut si veritas esset. Cum ergo volueris operari ieiunabis in die Martis usque ad noctem; in nocte vero facias holocaustum de animali rapaci11 infra12 domum aliquam, ad ignem et scribe de sanguine animalis eiusdem nomen angeli et karacteres martis in pelle animalis et cum volueris operari scribe karacteres et nomen angeli eius in terra et carta aperta nomina quod petis et apparebit statim et cum volueris que dispareat claude cartam.

[21] The third experiment. The third operation of this art is for making armed or unarmed men or soldiers appear, and fighting encampments and also all kinds of and games mockeries you would want, as if they were real.  Therefore, when you will want to operate, you will fast on the day of Mars until nightfall; at night truly make a burnt offering of a prey animal11 beneath12 someone`s house, over a fire, and write with the blood of this same animal the name of the angel and the characters of Mars in the skin of the animal (sic) and when you will want to operate write the characters and the name of the angel on the ground and open the paper and name what you are asking for and it will immediately appear and when you will want it to disappear, close the paper.

[22] Experimentum quartum. Quarta operatio est artis huius ut nunque possis ab aliquot domino vel judice condempnari vel etiam superari13.  Cum ergo volueris hoc facere ieiunabis in die Mercurij usque ad noctem. Nocte vero facias holocaustum de vulpe vel de gatto14 in loco deserto et scribe karacteres et nomen angeli eius in pelle hedi de sanguine recent ipsius vulpis vel gatti et cum accesseris ad judice scribe karacteres et nomen Angeli eius in fronte vel pectore et tunc cum carta in manu et non condempnaberis unquem ab aliquo viuente.

[22] The fourth experiment. The fourth operation of this art is that no judge or lord will ever condemn you and you will never upset him13. Therefore, when you will want to do this, you will fast on the day of Mercury until nightfall. At night truly make a burnt offering of a fox or a cat14 in a deserted place and write the characters and name of the angel in kid`s skin with the recently obtained blood of the fox or cat and when you appear in front of the judge write the characters and the name of the angel on your forehead or chest and with this paper in hand he will not condemn you as elong as either of you shall live.

[23] Experimentum quintum. Quinta operatio huius artis est ad faciendum redire ad te omnes denarios15 quos unquem dabis alicui vel quicquid aliud dederis6. Cum ergo volueris operari hoc ieiunabis in die Jovis usque ad noctem; in nocte vero facias sacrificium de gallo et scribe de sanguine eius karacteres et [16r] nomen angeli eius in pelle vituli et omnes denarij quos in pelle illa inuolues reuertet ad te et quicquid inuolueris et dederis reuertetur ad te cito et illi dicuntur debere portari in novo marsupio ad hoc deputato.

[23] The fifth experiment. The fifth operation of this art is for making return to you all coins15 that you will ever give to someone or someone else will give6. Therefore, when you will want to work this, you will fast on the day of Jupiter until until nightfall; at night truly make a burnt offering of a cock and write with its blood the characters and [16r] the name of its angel in calfskin and all coins that you shall wrap in this skin shall return and whatever you shall wrap up in it and give away will return to you quickly, and of it it is said that you must carry it in a new pouch made for this.

 [24] Experimentum sextus. Sexta operatio est ad faciendum mulierem te sequi quorumque volueris, ieiunabis in die veneris usque ad noctem. Nocte vero facies sacrificium de columba in loco virenti et de sanguine eius scribe karacteres et nomen angeli eius in pelle leporis et quotiens in manu tenueris et mulieri ostenderis te velociter sequitur.

[24] The sixth experiment. The sixth operation of this art is for making any of the women you want follow you. At night truly, make a sacrifice of a dove in a green place and with its blood write the characters and the name of its angel on hare`s skin and whenever you shall hold it in your hand and show it to a woman, she will quickly follow you.

[25] Experimentum septimum. Septima operatio est ad faciendum odium inter quoscumque volueris. Cum operare volueris ieiunabis in die sabbati usque ad noctem; in mane (alia nocte) vero facies sacrificium de capro venerio (alia virgineo) inter vespem alius vespes seu veptes16  et scribe karacteres et nomen angeli eius in pergameno vituli et cum volueris ponere inter duos odium scribe eorum nomina et karacteres et nomen angeli eius et nominando ponem in ignem.

[25] The seventh experiment. The seventh operation of this art is for making hatred between whomsoever you want. When  you will want to do this, you will fast on the day of the Sabbath until nightfall; in the morning(another: night) truly make a sacrifice of a kid goat of Venus(another: virgin) among wasps (another: wasps or veptes)16 and write the characters and name of its angel in calfskin and when you want to put hatred between two people, write their names and the characters and the name of its angel [on the parchment] and naming them, put it in a fire.

[26] Experimentum octavum. Octava operatio huius artis est ad intoxicandum quoscumque volueris. Cum ergo volueris operari ieiunabis in die domenico usque noctem. In nocte vero facies sacrificium de cane in quadriuio et cum sanguine eius scribes karacteres et nomen angeli eius in pelle caprina17 et cum volueris aliquem intoxicare intinge in potu eius annulum et intoxicabitur.

[26] The eighth experiment. The eighth operation of this art is for poisoning whomever you want. Therefore, when you will want to work this, you will fast on the Lord`s day of until nightfall. At night truly make a sacrifice of a dog at a crossroads and with its blood write the characters and the name of its angel in caprine skin17 and when you want to poison someone dip this ring in his drink and it shall be poisoned.

[27] Item nota quod in qualibet loco ubi operabitus debet fieri talis circulum sicut hic dimoneratur in quo fier introitus eius ab oriente exitus vero ab occidente et scribantur in terra karacteres et nomina angelorum.

[27] Note therefore, that whichever place you shall work there must be a certain circle which I shall represent here in which it is to be entered from the west and verily exited by east and you must write on the earth the characters and names of the angels.

[28] Item qualibet annulus debet sua die in crepusculo noctis diei attribute consecrari et sic fit consecratio. Fac circulum qui inferius est descriptus et scribe karacteres et nomen angeli eius per quo annulus consecratur  et accipe carbones in vase vel olla de quovis ligno sive accensos sive mortuos si tunc essent mortui  carbones fac ita que bene accendantur sine flamma et pone super illum ignem thimiama storacem calamitam et mumiam vel peoniam18 tantum de vno quantum de altero. Pone de predictis rebis in tanta quantitate quo fiat magnus fumus et tene cum manu sinistra annulum vel annulos que consecrator si plures vis consecrare eiusdem materie et teneantur super fumum. Et cum manum vero dextra tene cartam exorcismi donec totum exorcismum dixeris super ignem: Qui exorcismus sic incipit:

[28] Thus, each ring must be consecrated in its day, namely at the dawn of the night of its attributed day and such is the consecration. Make the circle that is described below and write the characters and the name of its angel by which you shall consecrate the ring and take coals [and put them] in a vessel or pot, whichever wood would it be, either lit or dead [smouldering] and when the coals will be dead, make them smoulder well without flame and put upon this fire incense  of storax, calamis and mumia or peony18, of each one as of the others. Put the afore-mentioned things in such a quantity that there shall be a great smoke and hold with your left hand the ring or the rings that are to be consecrated if you want to consecrate more than one of their matter and hold it [or them] over the smoke. And verily with your right hand hold the paper of the exorcism while you say the whole exorcism over the fire. Which exorcism thus begins:

[29] Exorcismus: “Exorcizo vos creatures planetarum spiritis dedicatos horisque eorum fortitudinis fabricatos per Vryel, Salquyel, Atroel19 et per fortitudinem magni principis vostri et per corona capitis eius20 et per omne robur voluntatis vobis principibus attributum quorum dominijs innumera exibentur preciosa vt valeatis quibus valere vos cupio et auxilium prebeatis ad qualia estis fabricate, per virtutes quae vos constringunt in secula seculorum amen.“ 21

Item nota que omnis carta virginea22 debet sacrificari antequem operator sicut sacrificitur predictis annulis.

[29] Exorcism: “I exorcize you, creatures dedicated to the spirits of the planets, forged in their most powerful hours, by Vryel, Salquyel, Atroel19 and by the power of your great prince and by the crown upon his head20  and by all the strengths of the wills that your princes assigned you, whose preciousness countless lords hold forth, I desire to rule those that rule you and be granted the assistance you grant towards which you were fashioned, by the virtues that bind you onto the age of ages. Amen”21

Also note that all of the virgin parchment22 must be sacrificed beforehand by the operator just like the sacrifices of the rings.


forma circuli.


the shape of the circle.

[Introitus ab Oriente.
Exitus ad Occidente.

Saturni character et nomen angelus eius. Galaton.
Jovis character et nomen angelus eius. Phytoneus.]
Martis character et nomen angelus eius. Corniger.
Solis character et nomen angelus eius. Cyrorax.
Veneris character et nomen angelus eius. Arbanistra.
Mercurij character et nomen angelus eius. Ypaton.
Lune character et nomen angelus eius. Cameleon.
Capitis Draconis character et nomen angelus eius. Ortaryaran.]23

[Entrence in the East
Exit in the West.

The character of Saturn and the name of its angel.Galaton.
The character of Jupiter and the name of its angel. Phytoneus
The character of Mars and the name of its angel. Corniger.
The character of the Sun and the name of its angel. Cyrorax.
The character of Venus and the name of its angel. Arbanistra.
The character of Mercury and the name of its angel. Ypaton.
The character of the Moon and the name of its angel. Cameleon.
The character of and the name of its angel. Ortaryaran.]23

[31] Intentio et expositio libri preciosi de annulis septem planetarum est talis ut tibi dicant. Scias primo que debes purus esse et vite virtuose atque prudentis et hoc ut differas a vita vulgarum quacum hoc que sunt idiote in specialibus sunt stulti in nominibus virtuosis et ad hoc vt tuum opus et tua verba recipient gracias et ultro sapientes et virtuosi que sunt angeli celi et spiritis subdicti24 eius ad quos in hoc libro habes tu dirigere tuum opus et a quibus debet recipe tuum honorem ad quem intendus Deo primo et premio in omnibus existente.

[31] The purpose and exposition of the precious book of the rings of the seven planets is that which I have told you. Know that first of all, you must be pure and lead a virtuous and prudent life, and this is how your life will differ from that of the vulgar, who are thus idiots and are especially stupid under the names of the virtuous, and by this shall your work and your words receive grace over the wise and the virtuous who are the celestial angels and their subservient spirits24 to which in this book you shall direct your work and from whome you must receive your honors, as God ordained first and foremost in all that is.

[32] Cum ergo fueris purus fac fieri similiter octo annulos puros de metallis que determinat libellus et temporibus et horis quas determinat idem; determinat enim que annulus Solis fiat in die Solis et hora Solis taliter quod totus annulus fiat in eadem hora et nihil de facture annuli reseruetur ad aliam usque ad similem horam qua ita expositum est, quod in prima hora potest fieri annulus vnus et similiter annulus lune in die lune et hora lune fiat et perficientur et sic de alijs vniuersis dum eis fit annulus factor et magister puri et animosi existentes debent continue nominare in lingua atque in memoria haberem angelum pro quo annulus fit vt si fiat annulus Solis debent in facture continue nominari lingua et memorari hic spiritus qui Cyrorax appelatur et si sit annulus martis hic spiritus qui Corniger vocatur et sic de alijs.

[32] When you are therefore pure, likewise make eight pure rings of the metals that are set forth in this booklet and in the hours and times that are also set forth. It is set forth that the ring of the Sun in to be made in the day of the Sun and in the hour of the Sun and likewise that all the rings are to be made in their own hour and no ring is not to be made in the hour reserved for another but [you must wait] until a similar hour that it is thus set forth, so in the first hour you can make the ring of one and likewise the ring of the Moon in the day of the Moon and the hour of the Moon and you shall finish, and so forth with the others, each one in each one`s [time] shall the rings be made and the master must be pure and vehement and must continuously name in his tongue as well as have in his mind the angel for whome the ring is made, so if it is the ring of the Sun, he must -in its making- continually name with his tongue and keep in his mind this spirit who is called Cyrorax and if it is the ring of Mars, this spirit who is called Corniger and so forth of the others.

[33] Ista autem nominatio et memoratio fit vel fieri post dupliciter sapientem que cuilibet magis placet [17r] vno modo solum nomen proferendo et memorando vt de Sole Cyrorax etc, continuando vel de marte Corniger Corniger Corniger etc, et sic durando quem dum durat facture annuli.

[33] However, this nomination and memoration is made or is to be made by the sage afterwords, however the magician preffers, [17r] one way only speaking and remembering the name, of the Sun, Cyrorax etc, or continuing with that of Mars Corniger Corniger Corniger etc and so doing as long as the making of the rings will take.

[34] Alio modum orationem seu postulationem sibi faciendo sic: “O Cyrorax angele Solis facio opus tuum et tue potentie et honoris annulum preciosum inspira ergo eum et dirige opus meum.” et sic de alijs continue.

[34] Another way of praying or requesting is to be made thus: “O Cyrorax, angel of the Sun, make your work, and breathe therefore into this precious ring your power and your honor, and guide my work.” And continue likewise with the others.

[35] Vel O Corniger angele Martis facio tuum et opus et tue potentie annulum et tui honoris pretiosum Inspire ergo eum et dirige opus meum  et sic de alijs continue in facture orationem eadem resumendo diligentia operis habita. Et non per secularia desideria interpositaserata quia angeli cum sunt sapientes perfectum modum operandi et opus intentionis volunt et non modum tediosum et otiosum et incuriosus curant. 

[35] Or “O Corniger, angel of Mars, make your work, and breathe therefore into this precious ring your power and your honor, and guide my work.” and continue likewise with the others in making the prayers, resuming afterwards the work with the usual diligence. And do not interpose worldly pleasures, for the angels being wise, will work in a perfect way and according to your work`s intent and shall not run in a  tedious or idle or careless way.

[36] Et scias que quando annulus est factus karacteres debent sculpi  in nodo et in virgule25 nomen angeli eius totum hoc in eadem hora vt dictum est preficiendo et non a parte interior sed a parte exterior ita sculpi debent eo que instum opus anima tuum est non est opus orationis.

[36] And know that when the characters are made, you must engrave the names to the point and to the line25, all in the same hour and you will finish, and not on the inside part but on the outside part you must engrave them, for it is a work for your soul not for your speaking.

[37] Quando vero isti annuli sunt facti in pixide munda et noua cum mundis inuolutionibus reponantur et non amplius inde extrahantur nisi operationis causa; quia ista talia frustra sive gloria vana non haberit locum.

[37] When verily these rings are made, you shall put them in a clean and new  box with clean wrappings and you shall not take them out if you will not wish to cause a working, for in this, frustration and vanitous glory have no place.

[38] Et scias que non sufficit que in factura ipsorum que fiat in die et hora planete eius sunt imo requeritur que sit luna crescens et in numero pari sed quod luna sit 2a, 4a, ut 6a, et sit de alijs vt dicit libellus, sed ego non dico sed credo que sufficit que sit crescens et tempus bonum et tranquillum et sicut dicitur de isto annulo Solis ita debet intelligi simili modo de annulus Veneris vt que annulus Saturni fiat in prima hora diei saturni vel sabbati, vel in octaua hora quae est similiter Saturni et que luna sit crescens et que tempus sit bonum et tranquillum et his omnibus sufficienter obseruantis et perfectis annuli erunt perfecti et perfecte fabricati et his et aliquibus horis absentibus erunt inperfecte facti et sic inutiles erunt operationi vere et desiderate. Nec fiant hi annuli in loco privatie gentum nec in loco imundo quia munditia et secretum sunt de necessitate in omnibus operationibus tuis aliter hic liber subalternaretur.

[38] And know that it is not sufficient that their making should be during the day and hour of their planet, but the Moon should be waxing and [the lunar day be] of an even number, that is when the Moon is in the second [day], the fourth [day], the sixth [day] and so of the others, as the booklet says, but I do not say this, but believe it suffices that it is waxing and the weather is good and calm. And as we speak of this ring of the Sun it is to be understood in the same fashion of the ring of Venus, as the ring of Saturn is to be made in the first hour of the day of Saturn or of the Sabbath, or in the eighth hour that is also that of Saturn, and the Moon be waxing and  the weather be good and calm and this in all is sufficient to be observed and finish the ring when it ends and it shall be perfectly made and if it made in the other absent hours it shall be imperfectly made and thus, useless in true and desired operations.  Neither let this ring be in [near] man`s private parts, nor in an unclean place, for cleanliness and secrecy are necessary in all your operations or any that this book shall subordinate.

[39] Item scrias que non est vis si annuli hi fiant fundendo vel malleando solus que karacteres et nomina fiant sculpendo et totum in eadem hora terminetur sed tam sculptio quem fusio vel malleatio solum tuum que karacteres et nomina fiant sculpendo et que totum in eadem hora terminetur ut supra26, annulis autem factis vna die dicito cum luna erit crescens vt dictum est ieiunabis et hora prima vel octaua scribes cum incausto planete in pergameno virgineo exorcismum illum qui est in libello et incipit:

[39] Also know that it is not powerfull if a ring is to be cast or hammered unless the characters and names are engraved and all finished in the same hour, or that the carving or melting or hammering be done only by you and that the characters and names  be engraved and that all in the same hour be finished as above26, the rings being made in a day as said, with the Moon waxing as we have said, you shall fast and in the first hour or eighth hour write will the paint [ink] of the planet on virgin parchment that exorcism that is in the booklet and begins thus:

[40] “Exorcizo vos creaturas planetarum spiritibus dedicatas horasque earum fortitudinis descriptus eis vt valeatis quibus vos valere cupio:[17v] et auxilia prebeatis ad qualia vos estis sacramenta descripte per virtute eis”.27 Nisi que scias quod hi exorcismi sunt hic positi per habenda scientia tota. Sed quando fit opus particulare sicut illud de Sole de quo modo loquimur ab vtrasque istorum debes vnum particularem exorcismum extrahere sic:

[40] I exorcize you, creatures dedicated to the spirits of the planets, described in their most powerful hours, I desire to rule those that rule you :[17v] and be granted the assistance you grant towards which you were fashioned, by their virtues“27 Except you should know that this exorcisms are thus placed for having the whole of the  knowledge. But when there be a particular work, like trhat of the Sun of  which we shall speak, for each one of these you must extract a particular exorcism:

[41] “Exorcizo te creatura Solis planete et spiriti eius dedicatam per Vryelem etc, vt valeas quibus te valere cupio: et auxilia prebeas ad qualia tu es annulus fabricatis  per virtutes quae vos constringunt in secula seculorum, amen.

[41] “I exorcise thee, creature dedicated to the planet of the Sun and to its spirit, by Uriel etc, I desire to rule those that rule you and be granted the assistance you grant towards which you, ring,  were fashioned, by their virtues that bind you onto the age of ages, amen.”

[42] Similiter alter exorcismus ehtrahitur sic:
Exorcizo te karacterem Solis planete sacri eiusque spiritui dedicatum horaque fortitudinis eius descriptum per Vryelem etc., ut valeas quibus etc., et auxilia prebeas ad quae tu rest sacra carta descripta per virtutes quae te constringunt in secula seculorum, amen.

[42] Likewise extract another exorcism thus:
“I exorcise thee, creature dedicated to the sacred planet of the Sun and to its spirit and to its prescribed horary power, by Uriel etc, to rule those etc., and be granted the assistance you grant towards which you sacred paper were written, by the virtues that bind you onto the age of ages, amen.”

[43] et quando tu scripseris tuos exorcismos continue cogita: et profer in illo ieiunio nomen angeli planete et karacteres eius et tene te multum per silencitum illa die et cum erit nox et crepusculum cape vestes lineas mundas et accipe olla nouam de terra et suffumiga quando ponuntur in caracteribus et sigillis et ensem vel gladium28 clarum benedictum et pergamenum virgineum et aliam pellem in qua precipitur scribe karacteres in libello predicto et sacrificium sicut precipit libellus vt puta auem domesticam in ope solis et tunc vade ad littus aque currents et ibi cum ense vel clauo fac unum circulum cuius dyametrum sit nouem pedum dicendum orationem predictam scilicet:

 “O Cyrorax angele Solis facio tuum opus etc.,” Nisi que ibi dicebatur annulus preciosum modo dic circulum et fac alium circulum intis illum distantem ab illo primo pedem vnum quo facto fiat diametrum transuersalem que respiciat orientem et occidentem quo facto sub illo diametro transuersali pertrahe aliam lineam transuersalem distantem ab illa per pedes vnum quia inter illas duas lineas debet fieri introitus scilicet ab ortu et exitu ab occasu quio facto teneas faciem versus pretem illius planete cuius est opus scilicet solis in quo loquimur modo, qua pars orientalis est solis, Consolaria Jouis, Auerana Martis, Noegalma Mercurij, Occidens lune, Frigecap vero veneris29 Invocatio Christi. 30

Tunc ergo te respitiente versus partem Solis cuius operis puta Cyrorax in preposito que est angelus solis dehinc karacteres Solis uel eiusdem planete operis versus partem sub nomine angeli sui infra circulos ambos quo facto, cape ollam et carbones et accede eos sinem flamma et pone eos in olla intra circulos sub karactere in centro circuli vel iuxta existente et in omnibus istis debes habere continue in lingua et in memoria  nomen angeli thematis. Quo facto pone suffumiga in olla super primas et ponas satis ita que faciat [18r] fumum magnum. Tunc cape annulum in manu sinistra et exorcismum annuli in dextra. Tunc tene annulum super fumum et lege exorcismum bis vel ter, qui satis debet esse sedendo in medio circuli tibijs plintis et cancellatis, quo facto pone annulum in digito quarto manus sinistre et hoc facto cape auem domesticam et macta eam in aliquot vase vitreo vel ligneo nouo et polito vel terreo vitreato sanguinem colligendo. Hoc facto perijce extra versus parte orientalem in preposito in alijs versus partes suas animal mortuum demactatum dicendo: 

”O tu angele Cyrorax sacrificium tue laudis suscipe et hoc opus tui honoris amen.”

Hoc facto cum pluma eiusdem auis scribe in carta virginea nomen angeli Solis Cyrorax vel illius planete cuius est opus et karacteres eius cum sanguine in vaso vitreo seruato.

Hoc facto iterum ponem suffumigium in vase vel olla et fac satis de fumo et cum sinistra manu tene annulum super fumum et cartam istam virgineam dicendo exorcismum totum in dextra qui est exorcismus carte et lege eam bis vel tres. Quo facto repone annulus et cartam inuolutos in panno mundo in pixide noua qui pannus sit rubeus et nouus si sit opus solis ut predictum est et similiter plures annulos vniusque planete consecrare posses et cartas sicut vnum vel vnam si velles.

 Sed si essent diuersorum planetarum non posset nisi vnum in vnam operationem. Tunc ille annulus solis et illa carta sunt consecrate ad operandum et equum habendum faciendo sicut dicitur in libello, nisi que prima vire operatio ista Solis fiat ad habendum equum et sic omnis operatio cuiuscumque planete quae est operatio prima post consecrationem facienda, et debet fieri die et hora eiudem planete cuius est opus, et luna crescent etc.

 Tempora predicta eligendo sed in alijs viribus postquem equus fierit semel advocates et habitus non oportet expectari tunc tempus quando tibi placet vnde in circulo non oportet scribe aliud nisi karacteres solis et nomen angeli eius ut dictum est.

[43] and when you will write your exorcisms continually think and pronounce in your fasting the name of the angel  of the planet and its characters
and hold yourself silent for that day and when night will fall and be dusk, don new linen clothes and take a new earthen pot and suffumigate when you put in the characters and the sigils and a bright and blessed sword or gladius28 and the virgin parchment and other skins in which you must write the characters of the planets as it is said in the booklet, and the sacrifice that is described in the booklet, namely the domestic [sic!] bird in the work of the Sun, and go then to the bank of the river and with the sword or a nail make make a circle of a diameter of nine feet, saying the aforementioned oration:

“O Cyrorax angel of the Sun, I perform your work, etc., All you will say in [the makig of ] the precious ring, you will say [in the making] of the circle, and make another inner circle, it being distanced from the first one by one foot, that you shall make having a transverse diameter that will go from the East to West, and make under this transversal diameter the other transversal lines distanced by it by one foot, that between these two lines must be entered from the Sun-rise and exited by the Sun-set, and these being made, face towards that same planet of which the expreriment is, that is, of the Sun, in this fashion we shall speak of, that the Orient is of the Sun, the Consolaria is of Jupiter, the Averana is of Mars, the Noegalma is of Mercury, the Occident is of  the Moon, Frigecap truly of Venus29, Invocation of Christ30.
Then direct yourself therefore to the part of the Sun, whose work is ordained to Cyrorax, who is the angel of the Sun, towards the characters of the Sun or the work`s planet, under the name of the angel that is beneath the two circles you have made, take the vessel and the coals and light them so that there is no flame and put them in the vessel between the circles under the character, in the center of the circle or next to it and in all these you must have upon your tongue and mind the name of the designated angel continuously.  This being done, put the suffumigations in the vessel over the first ones and put enough so that it will make [18r] much smoke. Then take the ring in the left hand and the exorcism of the ring in the right hand. Then hold the ring over the smoke and read the exorcism twice or thrice, this being done enough you must take a seat in the center of your circle, raised and covered,  this being done put the ring on the fourth finger of the left hand and this being done, take the domestic bird and sacrifice it some glass vessel or new vessel made of polished wood or earthen glazed vessel, to collect the blood. This being done, throw it outside towards the East and in all abovesaid in each of their directions, saying:
“O thou  angel Cyrorax, receive this sacrifice to your praise and in your honor in this work.”

This being done, with the quill of the same bird write in the virgin paper the name of the angel of the Sun, Cyrorax, or of the planet whose work it is and its characters with the blood kept in the glass vessel.
This being done, put therefore suffumigations in the vase or pot and make plenty of smoke and with the left hand hold the ring over the smoke and this paper, that is to say, the exorcism, also in the right hand that is the exorcism of the paper and read it twice or thrice.  This being done, place once again the ring and paper wrapped in a clean cloth in a new box, which cloth is to be red and new if the working is that of the Sun as before mentioned, and likewise for the other rings, each planet with its own, being consecrated and their papers as this one, if you want.
If there is to be for a different planet, you can do but one in one operation. Then will the ring of the Sun and its paper be consecrated to work and you can make the [experiment with the] obtaining of the horse like it is said in the booklet, for the first operation of power is of the Sun, to obtain the horse, and likewise for all the works of each of the planets of which first work is to be done after the consecration, and it must be in the day and hour of that planet whose work it is, and the Moon be waxing etc.,
The aforementioned times being chosen, you will not need to wait for other powers once you have called and retained the horse once, but whenever it will please you,  and you will not need to write in the circle anything but the character and the name as it is said.  

[44] Si vero opus, si alterius planetem quem solis debet scribe in circulo character et nomen solis versus orientem et nomen angeli eius scilicet alterius planete in quo operaris versus aliam partem sibi scilicet pertinentem sicut versus Consol si opus fuerit Jouis et versus frigicap si opus fuerit Mercurij et sic de alijs. Ita que ea quae sunt solis praecipiuntur  in omni opere nisi quando opus est alterius planete annulus alterius planete debet poni in digito quarto dextre manus31 et facies et  sacrificium et exorcismus debent fieri versus partem illius planete cuius est annulus et nomen Solis et annuli mutari ut debet et nota que quando fit operatio similis cuiuscumque planete debet angelus illius inuocari vt verbi gratia quando iam vis que [18v] per solem veniat equus vt dicit liber ponitur annulus auri in digite quarto sinistre manus et teneatur carta in dextera et depingatur karacter in terra cum nomine angeli Solis et dicitur sic:

[44] If you truly work this, or another planet than the Sun, you must write in the circle the character and the name of the Sun towards the East and the name of its angel or another planet which you wish to work likewise towards that part, like towards Consol if it were the work of Jupiter, and towards Frigicap if it were the work of Mercury, and so forth of the others.   Thus take in all works all that it is [required] of the Sun, so when the work is that of another planet, the ring of this other planet is to be placed on the fourth finger of your right hand,31 and your face and the sacrifice and the exorcism must be towards the part of that planet who`s ring it is, and change the name of the Sun and the ring as needed, and note that when there will be a similar work of each of the planets, you must invoke its angel and speak its might when you will want it by which [18v] by the [might of ] Sun the horse came, as the books says, and put the ring of gold on the fourth finger of the left hand and holding the paper in the right and having had drawn the character on the earth with the name of the angel of the Sun, and [sic] say this:

[45] “O Cyrorax angele Solis equum velocitatis mihi mittere et opus tuum honoris comple nunc in hora, amen.”

Tunc statim veniet equus niger, et sine terrore eum cape et coniura sic:

“Coniuro te o bone eque quod sine terrore et sine lesionem corporis et anime mee nunc infra istam horam me sanum et saluum portes usque ad talem locum N. per virtutem et potestatem angeli Solis Cyrorax et per Vryelem et Barachielem et Acroelem et per fortitudinem principis vostri et per coronam capitis eius et per omne robur voluntatis a principio attribute et per et per virtutes que te constringunt in secula seculorum.” 32

[45] O Cyrorax angel of the Sun, send to me a horse of speed and complete your work in this hour, Amen.”
Then there will quicly come a black horse and without fear seize him and conjure as follows:
“I conjure thee, o, good horse, that without fright and without harm to my body and my soul, now in the space of this hour bear me whole and healthy towards this place N. by the virtue and power of the angel of the Sun Cyrorax and by Uriel and by Barachiel and by Acroel and by the strenghth of your prince and by the crown upon his head and by all the strengths of the wills given at the beginning and by the virtues that bind you onto the age of ages.”32

[46] Hoc dicto, salias sursum et vade in pare nil boni vel mali loquendo vsque ad terminum tuum intra illam horam cogitarem tuam potes quecquid vis. Idem est precessus in qualibet angelorum inuocatione nisi varitatis variandis que sunt iam dicta.

[46] This being said, jump up [on the horse] and be on your way speaking neither good nor evil, until the end in that same hour, but you can think whatever you wish. Likewise are things to be done in all of the angel`s invocations, only changing that which is said to be changed.

[47] Quod sequitur iam nota quod in libello in quo est particula preciosa vna prestigiorum planetarum tres  operationes sunt vna operacio est. Prima facto vt angelorum virtutibus superiorum homo sit specialibus annum angelorum omnibus quia amicitiam impetrat ab eis mira quodam.
Secunda operatio est consecratio annulorum et karacterorum in circulo rationem cuius consecrationis introducitur forma in materia annuli nominis et karacteri, que forma non est aliud quam confirmatio virtutis originalis date nomini similiter ab initio munda.

Tertia operatione est finalis ad quam due predicte finaliter ordinantur. Item nota que per positionem annuli in digito et per operationem carte et descriptionem nominis similiter in Terra et petitionem que fieri debet efficitur res mira et desiderata per qua est tota operatio elaborate.

Item nota quod sicut precessista in secunda operationem tuum operationum similiter debes precedere in alius operationibus aliorum planetarum nisi que mutetur dies ieiunij vt dicit liber et locus vbi debet fieri circulus ut dicitur super et sacrificium illiud fiat ut dicit auctor super, sed idem est modus pertrahendi circulum in omnibus et scribendi.

[47] What follows now, take heed, that in this booklet there is a precious part, consisting of the fact that each planet`s effect three works are indeed one. The first is made to the virtues of the angels that are superior to man, according to their appointed times, of all the angels whose friendship we beseech of them a certain miracle. The second operation is the consecration of the rings and the characters in the circle, by whose reason of consecration introduces the forms of the names and the characters in the matter of the ring, which form is nothing else but the confirmation of the original virtue given to the name likewise, in the beginning of the world.  The third work is the final one,  to wich end the two aforementioned are ordained. Therefore take heed that by the placement of the ring upon your finger and by the work of the paper and the depicting of the names likewise on the earth and the petitions that are to be made, wonderful and desired things will be accomplished, for which the whole work has been elaborated.
Therefore take heed that the way you proceeded your second work you must proceed in all the works of the other planets, only changing the day of the fasting as the book says, and the place where the circle is to be made as said above and its sacrifice that is to be made, as the author says above, so this is the way to draw the circle and write in all of them.

[48] Nota similiter quod in vna operacione circuli actualis nunquem debent scribe nisi si duo scilicet nomen et karacteres similiter et nomen angeli Solis et alterius planete  cuius est opus. Et nomen similiter ad illias partes mundi quae attribuntur planetis eisdem quam annulus Solis in operationem est necessarus et nomen solis in circulo superdicto super cartam cum penna eiusem auis de qua sit sacrificium si auis sit, si vero non cum penna auis sacrificij licet non sit hoc de necessitate positum sed de bene esse sed bene melius esset quem aliter.

[48] Take heed also that in one actual operation you must never write anything except two things, those being the name and the characters, like the name of the angel of the Sun [sic] and of the other planet whose work it is. And the name likewise, in those parts of the world that are attributed to its planet, so that the ring of the Sun in the work is necessary and the name of the Sun in the above-mentioned circle, over the paper with the quill from the same bird that is sacrificed, and if not truly possible with a quill of the sacrificed bird, it is not necessary in order to be good, but it is better than any other.    

[49] Hoc opus est magne virtutis et certitudinis per quod poteris te felicem in hoc seculo seculorum. Si ordinibus superius [19r] seruatis maxima cum mundicia et silencio feceris et sine vana gloria.  Et hic sicut liber de annulis nominibus et karacteribus septem planetarum33 ad laudem dei omnipotentis.

[49] This work is of great virtue and certainty, by which you can be made joyous onto the age of ages, if you shall keep the orders described in it [19r] with utmost cleanliness and conduct them silence and without vane glory. And so of the book of the rings, names and characters of the seven planets33, to the praise of the Omnipotent God.

[50] Et ecce oratio preparatiua quam similiter dico ad bene esse.

“O angeli sancti et potentes in terra, aere et abisso Captiel  Satquiel Samael Raphael Anael Michael et Gabriel domini septem celorum et planetarum per Saday gloriosum qui ab initio vos constituit super celestes angelos saturnales, joviales, martiales, solares, venereos, mercuriales, et lunares et super vniuersos que sunt in igne et super omnes que sunt in aere et super cunctos que sunt in terre et aquis, ego adiuro vos per domini viuente On Ely Agla hatyonadabazar  et precor vos per deum et dominus nostrum Iesum Christum Homo, Petra, lapis, Redemptor, leo, lux, Gloria, Sanctus, ac postulo a vobis per septem cellos et omnes virtutes eorum et per quatuor mundi partes et per omnes habitants in eisdem et per virtutes influentes luces lucentes, et per incorruptibilem dominem Athanatos, intangibilem et permanentem quod mihi N.f.N.34 immittatis applicetis  ac partier obedientes faciatias vel obedificetis hos septem alia octo angelos subditos vestros scilicet Cyrorax, Phytoneus, Corniger, Arbanistra, Cameleon, Ypaton, Galatyn, Ortaryanan pro isto facto et miro opere ipsorum que quidem incipio et facere volo de octo sacris annulis et karacteribus eorum vt predestinatum et ordinatum est ab incomprehensibili profunditatis sapientie et scientie dei omnipotentis sic ut cum ego N. sicuti operates ero quod debuero ipsis, ipsi mihi quod debuerint operator per vim ac virtutem inuictissimi et iustitiam dei omnipotentis eterni et inexistimabilis. Amen”. 35   ~Explicit~

[50] And here is a preparatory oration that you must likewise say for all being well.
O thou holy angels and powerful over the earth, the air and the abyss, Captiel  Satquiel Samael Raphael Anael Michael et Gabriel, lords of the seven heavens and the seven planets, by Saday the glorious who from the begging constituted you over the celestial angels, saturnials, jovials, martials, solarials, venerials, mercurials and lunarials, and over all that are in fire and over all that are in the air and over those who are in the earth and waters, I adjure you by the Living God On Ely Agla hatyonadabazar and beseech you by our Lord and God Iesum Christum Homo, Petra, lapis, Redemptor, leo, lux, Gloria, Sanctus, and entreat you by the seven heavens and all their virtues and by the four parts of the world and by all their inhabitants and by the virtues of the influences of the shining lights, and the incorruptible God Athanatos, intangible and permanent, that you render to me N. son of N.34 and make humble and obedient and serving the seven or eight to-be-named angels Cyrorax, Phytoneus, Corniger, Arbanistra, Cameleon, Ypaton, Galatyn, Ortaryanan, for this wonderous work of theirs, of whose beginning and making of the eighth sacred rings and their characters  is predestined and ordained from the imcomprehensible deapth of wisdom and knowledge of the allpowerful God, such as I N. work it as I should, so to me it should be made to work, by the might and virtue of the unconquered and right justice of the allpowerful, eternal and inestimable God. Amen” 35 ~End~

3. Notes

 1. As stated in Kassel Version notes 2 and 3, the treatise varies in the attribution of the character: sometimes the character is attributed to the planet and separate of the angel, sometimes the character and the name of the angel are called together, indicating that the character is proper to the angel.

2. Corniger appears in the Sworn Book of Honorius (Peterson, Joseph, Ibis Press, 2016, p.279 ): Corniger rex meridionalis, et habet 4 ministros in 4 mundi partibus. // Trocornifer in oriente. // Malafer in occidente. // Euiraber in meridie. // Mulcifer in septemtrione. Et quilibet habet legiones centum, et in qualibet sunt demones 4500, qui omnes istis 4 obediunt et subduntur. Et isti 4 sunt qui possunt omnes alios spiritus a thesauris absconditis fugare ligare et constringere, et sunt ministri infernales. [Corniger is king of the southand he has four attendents in the four parts of the world: Trocornifer in the East, Malafer in the West, Euiraber in the South, Mulcifer in the North. And each of them has hundreds of legions, and in each legion is 4500 daemons, who all obey and are subject to these four, and these four are able to drive away all other spirits from hidden treasures, to bind and to constrain, and they are the ministers of Hell.] We must therefore question the angelicity of the spirits names in this treatise.

3. Cf. Kassel Version, note 1. Metallic attributions vary in Arabic magical texts and do not correspond to the classical attributions popularized by Cornelius Agrippa.

4. While invocating and chanting names are common in such texts, it is very rare that a mental attitude is advised, to compliment the oral element.  In later versions this part is completely overlooked.

5. While later texts only mention sacrifices (sg: sacrificium), this version is the first, to my knowledge, to also call them burnt offerings (sg: holocaustum). This, along with the the other ritual prescriptions, change our view of the sacrifices made to accompany these consecrations: the first set of sacrifices are to be made to obtain the skins, that once cured in lime and dried procured the magician with the parchments, while the second set is of the animal prescribed in the experiment, presumably decapitated, drained of blood in a glass or earthen vessel (which blood was to be kept, consecrated and used for writing on the parchments), burned on the fire and tossed outside the circle while entreating the planetary angel to accept the offering, a much more complete and complex image than one would have suspected while reading the later versions of this text. Whilst we can assume that sacrifices were made to demons exclusively if judging from a biased and modern stance, older texts, such as the Sepher Ha Razim, contradict this.

6. The phase of the Moon (increasing) and its age (exclusively even days, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16) are generally mentioned in ritual and astral magic books (most notoriously in the Lemegeton and the Thesaurum Spirituum) but are laking in later versions.

7. The text makes a point in stressing, especially with the rings of the Sun and Mercury) that the efficacy of the experiments are not reserved solely to the operator, but might be employed by any any person the magician wishes and have the same effect as for himself, presumably to offer some sort of objective veridicity of the phenomena obtained through them.

8. The fourth finger beginning with the index, presumably, as other texts specify the little finger explicitly.

9. A trivia is a short Latin word equivalent to the long English expressions crossroads where three ways meet, much like the quadrivia is the crossrads where four ways meet.

10. Countrary to earlier conclusions drawn for later texts, carta is not the paper material per se, further reading revealing the necessity of properly sacrificed parchment, but the parchment inscribed with characters, the document (cedula).

11. The scribal abbreviation āīā commonly replaces the word animalia. The Kassel version keeps this sense, but British versions (Camdrige) substituted avia (bird), and thus the expression animalia rapaci (animal of prey) became avia rapaci (bird of prey), simplified even more in Rawlinson 252 as raven.

12. infra (under) became corrupted to intra (inside).

13. The verb superare might mean two different things: the standard meaning would be to go above or to go over someone, to bypass their authority, while the most common use of the word, perpetuated in other Romance vernaculars, would be to make someone mad, to enrage or to cross someone. I have decided to go with the latter here, although the former might also be accurate.

14. Gatto is an Italian word for cat, not Latin, supporting the manuscript`s Florentine origins.

15. Although one might be tempted to make assumptions, the use of the word denarius is not of much help in placing the origin of the text, as the Roman denarius was the model of the Italian denaro, the Spanish dinero and the Arabic dinar. The word is an umbrella-term for all coins, not a specific historical numismatic unit.

16. The compiler clearly used at least two texts, writing parallel variations to what he considered flawed portions. Thus, the operator must not sacrifice a venereal kid-goat among wasps, in the morning, but a virgin kid-goat among brambles, at night.

 17. Caprina could mean a young female goat on one hand, or a general name for all animals in the caprine family.

18. Storax is a resin extracted from Liquidambar orientalis. Calamis refers to sweet reed root, Acorus Calamus. Mumia is hard to pinpoint precisely, since it was both the name of bitumen and that of a ground up or liquid powder obtained from actual Egyptian mummies. The fact that it is to be replaced with Peonia (a large number of fragrant flowers in the Paeonia genus) makes one wonder about the strictness of this incense`s recipe. 

19. Vriel, that is, Uriel, is generally called upon in this treatise in a trinity of angelic powers: Vryel, Salquyel, Atroel [29], Vryelem etc [41, 42], per Vryelem et Barachielem et Acroelem [45]. This parallels The Sworn Book of Honorius, where Uriel rules over the Jovian and Venerial spirits, and Hocroel over the lunar spirits, and is also the angelic teacher of the same Honorius . It is to be noted that in both Catolic and Eastern Orthodox tradition, Uriel and Barachiel are celebrated as archangels. Salquiel is more than likely a corruption of Satquiel, angel of Jupiter. In the Rawlinson 252 fragment, the triad is Vryel, Salatiel, Acoel.

20. magni principis vostri et per corona capitis eius is a phrase that enforces upon the rings the authority of a power that rules directly over the eight astral spirits. The Prince and the Crown upon his head might send readers wondering if this is to be understood as a demonic power or an angelic power. The only angelic authority that is called singularly in conjurations and has a lance and a crown, and also rules over planetary spirits in Arabic magic, would be Metatron. Although not very proeminent in Western magic, Arabic magic treatises  (such as Shams Maarif, Manba Usul Al-Hikmah, Al-Ajnass or Kitab Shumus al-Anwar etc) often employ him as an authority over the seven terrestrial kings of spirits, a category to which our “angels” might better be a part of.  Metatron`s crown is known to have been the subject of apocryphal and magical authors. (Orlov, Andrei: Yahoel and Metatron: Aural Apocalypticism and the Origins of Early Jewish Mysticism, Mohr Siebeck, 2017, p. 156). The Sworn Book, where Cornifer is a demon, has a similar hierarchy of planetary spirits, and they are conjured (p.270-271) per capuum principis vostri belzebub, cui debetis obedire [by the head of your prince belzebub which you must obey.] and, in another segment, this very expression is used, p.246-247: Capud et corona principis vestri belzebut [the head and the crown of your prince belzebut.] My personal lenience is towards Belzebut but until we might find solid textual evidence that this prince is either, I reserve judgement.


21. The last part of the conjuration might keep an echo of Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite`s celestial hierarchy, where Domini might be Dominations, Principis might be Principalities and Virtutes might be the Virtues, but this is conjectural.

22. In this small and seemingly insignificant note, two things are clarified: carta, which would normally be paper, and so translated in the other versions, is clearly indicated here as obtained via sacrifice, so ordinary paper is ruled out, leaving only parchment. The second thing is that this parchment is obtained not by purchase or regular parchment-making, but it is to be obtained by a similar ritual sacrifice, much like the virgin parchment obtaining procedures delineated in the Hygromanteia (The Magical Treatise of Solomon, Skinner, Marathakis, Golden Hoard, 2012). Cf.note 2.

23. The legenda of the circle does not appear in the manuscript itself, I have edited it in for clarity, since the names of the angels do differ slightly from the text. The characters have been isolated and presented in an appended chart. One peculiarity of this arrangement is the order: while the text always presents these in the week order, the circle presents the planets in the Chaldeean order (Saturn-Moon plus Caput Draco), beginning in the Northern cusp.

24. Altough being called angels throughout, the spirits that are the aim of the rituals contained in the book are subjected to the angels, thus they are a different class of beings, much like the Kings of the Air in The Sworn Book and the Heptameron, and presumably demonic, or at least neutral.

25. The expression in nodo et in virgule  can be translated both figuratively and literally. The figurative meaning is precisely, to the point, exactly, while the literal meaning is that the letters are to be engraved my marking the points of the letters with ample points or knots and uniting them with small lines, which will produce letters that are similar to the characters that can be seen on many Gnostic gems and rings, later developing into magical scripts like Malachim. I find that the expression to the point and to the line answers the needs of both meanings equally well.

26. The two variants given for the jeweler-haruspice seem identical, being a ring cast, hammered, refined and engraved in the same planetary hour,  but I suppose that the second set of instructions is meant to indicate that the ring may be worked in the space of an hour if the work is too complex, and finished in the next planetary hour by engraving. In all fairness, forging a ring and engraving it and performing a sacrifice and writing an amulet with its blood, all in the same hour, does seem like a laudable feat for any man, no matter the skill attained in each of these arts.

27. Short form of the exorcism. For the full version see [29]

28. Both ensis and gladius are rendered in English as sword. The ensis is much closer to the image of the classical sword, usually with a long, double blade and a cruciform guard, while the gladius is a short and robust sword, used since Antiquity, especially by Celts, Germans and popularized by Romans.

29. The list of the names of the cardinal directions is truly strage and does not appear in any classical author with one exception The Sworn Book (Peterson, op. cit. p.241). The appended table shows the directions named in TSB in chapter CXXVIII, with their proper planetary rulers.

30. This reading proved problematic both for me and others, and if deciphered incorrectly, I am open to suggestions. The Scribal note is

31. Quite possible an error since all instructions thus far and subsequent ones  require the left.

32. Almost identical formula, albeit shorter, to the exorcism in [29].

33. The name of the explicit is almost identical to the Cambridge version, Liber de Angelis, Annulis, Karecteribus & Ymaginibus Planetarum.
34. N. filius N. N. son of N. is the most common reflexive appellation in Arabic magic as well as other Orienthal practices, the operator being named as son of his mother.

35.  In the last portion of the text, the seven lords of the planetary heavens are called upon, listed in the Chaldean order: Captiel (Saturn), Satquiel (Jupiter), Samael (Mars), Raphael (Sun), Anael (Venus), Michael (Mercury) and Gabriel (Moon). Since they appear in a conjuration that seems added to the main text, and since the order is different, we might suspect a later interpolation. They make no appearance until the end. The names and attributes however, are consistent with Liber Juratus and the Elucidarium Nigromantiae. 

5. Synthetic charts 

1: General attributions

2. Characters and names of the circle

3.Directions and planets 
Planetary Ruler
Head of Draco (?)

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