The Necromantic Rings of Solomon,
King of the Jews
Transcription, translation, notes and graphics by Mihai Vârtejaru, Copyright © 2017. All rights reserved.
Original images belong to the Leipzig University Library.
Please print freely for private or academic use. Copying and reproduction of the texts is permitted only if the source is mentioned. This is a free work, for the benefit of all people interested and any commercial use is strictly prohibited.
Leipzig Cod.Mag.35, formerly Num.75 in a previous collection, is a small treatise, written on paper (8 fols of which 1v, 7v, 8r and 8v are blank), bound in green and golden brocart paper.
The language is Italian, with few parts in Latin, using black and red ink throughout.
I have kept the original lines in transcribing the manuscript, including word separation and noted the pages in the upper left in square brackets.
Unfortunately I was unable, due to editing, to put the seals in the text itself, so I have added them besides the ring, noting the place where they are inserted in the text.
As seen in the original scans, the figures are drawn in red and black ink, but I have omitted this from the present graphics as they mark only the image of the ring with red while the names and seals to be engraved remain black.
This transcript spells out in full the scribal abbreviations and does not retain them, for the sake of legibility, except in the case of numbers.
Wherever the translation proved troublesome, I`ve added end notes, and any help from my colleagues who might be in a position to elucidate their meaning will be graciously accepted.
A mention must be made regarding the fact that this seems to be a late and incomplete extract from Pseudo-Abano`s treatise of the rings of the 28 mansions of the Moon (Petri de Abano annulorum experimenta, BNF 7337, fols.131-138), which I am also translating currenly. This is quoted by Trithemius in his Antipalus as: liber Petri de Apono [Paduani medici Experimentorum] de annulis mirabilium, secundum XXVIII mansiones lunae. Once complete, this work will shed more light on any lacunae or problems of the current text. Also, a similar work of similar origin is the treatise Douze Anneaux, or Twelve Rings, appearing in a number of French manuscripts. The version in Lansdowne MS 1202 was published by Joseph Peterson and can be consulted Here.
Re de Ebrei
Secondo l`originale che si conserva
fra i manoscritti di Bi,
bliotheca din Vaticano
Secondo l`ordine della mensioni della lune farai fare li Anel,
li et in essi vi porrai le pietre, secondo si dice nel proprio anello
e lo suffumigerai con il suffumiggio secondo si dice al proprio anel,
lo li quali suffumaggi si devono porre sopra fuoco vergine cioê
cavato dal selce, in vaso di terra invetriato nuovo, et prima che
si suffumiggi si scrive et incide con l`ago de argento vergine il
nome del spirito, che vuoi scongiurare, et fatto il scongiuro,
farai il segno o carattere de spirito in luogo mondo, e netto,
perfectionato, il tutto come sopra porrai detto anello sopra una
tavola nuova, e poi dirai supra ciascheduno delli anelli seguenti
negromantici questo scongiuro.
Ego talis N. Filius talis N. conjuro te spiritum per tuum nomen,
per tuum characterem, per tuum planetam, per tuum principem, per
coelum et terram, per solem, per lunam, per septem planetas, per
omnes stellas, per quatuor elementa scilicet per aerem, per ignem,
per aquam, per terram, conjuro te per pluvias, per turbines, per
tonitrua, fulgura et grandines, per flammam et ignem, per volucres,
per boves et oves, per lapides, per herbas, per plantas, per arbo,
res, per flores, per fructus et septem coelos et abyssos, denique per
eum cui obedire teneris et debes et quandocunque Io con questo a,
nello faro questo segno [Fig.1] : et farai il carattere: Io feci [Fig.2] et
dirai la virtu del anello come apresso [Fig.3] cio fatto farai il segno
NB: Supra d`anelli si nota l`incenso o suffumiggio che si deve ad
operare quale troverai in ogni uno anello.
[Fig.4.Daleph. Incenso muschio]
[Fig.5.Seal of Daleph]
Per vincere ad ogni sorte di gioco et sempere nella prima mansione
della luna farai fare un anello de argento vivo formato et indorato
vi porrai una pietra /:occhio di gatto:/ il che fatto scriverai questo
nome de Daleph con ago et finito lo scongiuro, dirai lo ti comman,
do Daleph che subito, che io fare questo segno in terra [Fig.5]
sii vincitore a tutti li giochi et con chi giochero, doppo suffumi,
galo e fa il segno in luoco, che non possi essere disfato, et duran,
te quello sarai sempre vincitore.
Per andare a vendersi invisibile ad ogni persona.
[Fig.6. Astaroth. Pelle di nottola]
[Fig.7.Seal of Astaroth]
Nella 2da mansione della luna, farai fare un anello de piombo,
et vi porrai una pietra paragone et vi scriverai questo nome
Astaroth, con ago et fatto il scongiuro dirai: Io ti commando
Astaroth che farro questo segno in terra [Fig.7]
sia sempre invisibile a tutte le creature sin tanto, che non dis,
faro questo segno; et sin tanto che non disfarai il segno farai in,
visibile, onde tutti li segni si devano fare, che non si disfacino.
Per farsi amare da qualsi voglia femina.
[Fig.8. Surbisach. Suoi capelli]
[Fig.9.Seal of Surbisach]
Nella 3ia mansione della luna farai fare un anello di rame,
e vi porrai una pietra smaraldo o celeste et a torno scrivi: Surbi,
sach: et fatto la scongiuro dirai: Io ti commando Surbisach che subito
che farro con questo anello questo segno [Fig.9] in terra la tale mi ami
in modo che faci quello ch`io desidero et non ami altro, che me et
quando sara disfatto il segno cessara l`amore.
Per ottenere quasivoglia gratia da qualsivoglia persona.
[Fig.10.Methe. Scorza di melangola]
[Fig.11.Seal of Methe]
Nella 4ta mansione della luna fara fare un anello di stagno
et vi porrai Zaffiro, o celeste et scritto Methe, et fatto il scongiu,
ro dirai: Io ti commando Methe, che subito che faro questo seg,
no con questo anello [Fig.11] in terra il N. il Principe mi conceda
la tal grazia e sidere sempre in ogni anello fare il segno dove non
possi essere disfatto et osserva come sopra.
Per farsi amare da qualsivoglia Principe.
[Fig.13.Seal of Fusariel]
Nella 5. Mansione della luna farai fare un anello di stagno
et vi porrai pietra Zaffiro et scritto Fusariel et fatto lo scongiuro
dirai, io ti commando Fusariel che fatto questo segno in terra [Fig.13]
debbe essere amato dal tale Principe N. et sommamente ben visto
et doppo suffumigalo, come si deve fare de tutti li altri et fa il
segno il quale desfatto cessera l`effeto.
Per guarire ogni sorte de infirmita di febre.
[Fig.14.Asmodeus. Sandalo rosso]
[Fig.15.Seal of Asmodee]
Nella 6. Mansione della luna farai fare un Anello di stagno, et
Vi porrai pietra Zaffiro, o Zalla et scritto Asmodee et fatto la
scongiuro dirai: Io te commando Asmodee ch`subito, ch`io faro
con questo anello questo segno in terra [Fig.15] la tale persona
quanschi della febra ch`ha et il segno non si deve fare dove
possi andare cani per che tornarebbe la febre.
Per pigliare alla caccia di fiere quanto di piace.
[Fig.17.Seal of Astafal]
Nella 7ma mansione della luna farai fare un anello di argento,
e vi porrai un cristallo, o diamante e scritto il nume di Astafal,
e fatto il scongiuro dirai, io te commando Astafal, che subito, che
faro questo segno in terra [Fig.17] possi pigliare tutto quella caccia
che mi piace in quel giorno, e poi che farai tornato diffarai il
segno et cessa la virtu del segno.
Per pigliare quanta caccia di pesce ti piace
[Fig.18.Emes. Radice de Felie]
[Fig.19.Seal of Emes]
Nella 8 mansione della luna farai fare un anello di argento, e
vi porrai pietra granata et scritto a torno Emes, et fatto il scongi,
uro dirai: Io ti commando Emes che subito che faro questo segno
[Fig.19] in terra et fin tanto che no disfara possi pigliare tutti
quelli pesci ch`voglio. E tornato dalla caccia si disfara il segno, et
cosi si deve fare di tutti.
Per fare infermare qualsivoglia persona, che voi.
[Fig.20.Sonotras. Radice di oliviere]
[Fig.21.Seal of Sonotras]
Nella 9. mansione della luna farai fare un anello di piombo e vi
porrai gemma di colore negro, e scritto il nome Sonotras et fatto lo
scongiuro dirai: Io ti commando Sonotras che subito fatto questo
segno [Fig.21] in terra la tale N. persona s`infermi di talo N. male,
ne possa guarire sin che io non quasto detto segno, e quando vuoi,
che sara disfarai il segno, come si fa in tutti li altri et opera
Per essere vincitore di tutti li suoi nemici
[Fig.22. Sichel. Fiore di caulo.]
[Fig.23.Seal of Sichel]
Nella decima mansion della luna farai fare un Anello di ferro, e
vi porrai pietra granata et rossa, et scritto Sichel e fatto il scon,
guiro sopra tavola nuova dirai. Io ti scongiuro Sichel, che subito
fatto questo segno [Fig.23] in terra non possi essere vinto in nissuna
occasione, o tempo da nissuno mio nemico. Et si deve fare il segno
in luoco che non possi essere disfatto da nissuno come anche tutti
Per fare dormire una Persona quanto ti piace.
NASQVIEL. Specie greta. Hic est
[Fig.25.Seal of Biqviel]
Nella 11ma mansion della luna farai fare un anello d`argento
e vi porrai una gemma e scritto Biqviel, e fatto lo scongiuro come
sopra, dirai io ti commando Biqviel che subito, che sara fatto questo
[Fig.25] segno in terra con questo anello la tale N. persona si addor,
menti e dormi sin, che io disfare questo segno e disfatto restera
di dormire come farai in tutti li altri anelli.
Per non essere preso da Nemici della Justitia.
[Fig.26. Biqviel. Scorze de salce. Hic est annulus 11]
[Fig.27.Seal of Binas]
Nella 12. Mansion della luna farai fare un Anello di rame
et vi porrai gemma Smeraldo o verde scritto binas, et fatto lo
scongiuro dirai io ti commando Binas che subito ch`io fare questo
segno in terra [Fig.27] non possi essere preso dalli ministri di Giusti,
cia et sin tanto, che durerra quell segno non haver mai paura
ma disfatto sarete preso come prima.
Da essere amato da tutti, con chi prattichi e tratti.
[Fig.28. Ramiel. Penne di colomba.]
[Fig.29.Seal of Ramiel ]
Nella 13. mansione della luna farai fare un anello di rame e
vi porrai gemma Smeraldo o verde e scritto a torno Ramiel, e
fatto lo scongiuro dirai, io ti commando Ramiel ch` subito, che
faro questo segno in terra [Fig.29.], et sin tanto, che non sara dis,
fatto tutti, e qualsivoglia persona, che ll segno cessera la benevo,
lenza. [ll tratta e pratica meco debba amarmi, et disfatto il]
Per non essere offeso da ni una sorte d`armi.
[Fig.30. Rafan. Seme di genebro]
[Fig.31.Seal of Rafan]
Nella 14. Mansione della luna farai fare un Anello di ferro
et vi porrai gemma granata, rossa et scritto Rafan et
fatto lo scongiuro dirai io ti commando Rafan che fatto
questo segno [Fig.31] in terra nissuna sorte d`armi possi offen,
dermi et si deve fare dove non possa essere disfatto, come
tutti li altri, perche cessarebbe la sua virtu.
Fine delli Anelli
King of the Jews
After the original that is kept
among the manuscripts of
The Library of the Vatican
After the order of the mansions of the Moon you will make the Rings and in these you will set the stones that are mentioned for each ring and you will suffumigate it with the suffumigation that is mentioned at each ring, which suffumigation you will put in a pure fire that is kindled with willow wood, in a new glazed earthen vessel and prior to suffumigating it you will have written and engraved with the pure silver needle2 the name of the spirit3 that you want to conjure, and once the conjuration is made, you will make the sign or the character of the spirit in a clean and neat place, leveled down, and above this you will place the ring on a new table and then you will say over each of the following necromantic rings this conjuration:
I, N. son of N.4, do conjure you spirit, by your name, by your character, by your planet, by your prince, by the heaven and the earth, by the sun, by the moon, by the seven planets, by all the stars, by the four elements, that is, by air, by fire, by water, by earth, i conjure you by rains, by tornadoes, by thunders, by lightnings and hails, by flames and fires, by birds, by cattle and by sheep, by stones, by herbs, by plants, by trees, by flowers, by fruits and by the seven heavens and hells and finally by him whome all obey, that whenever5 I will make this sign [Fig.1] with this ring (and you will make the character) I will make [Fig.2] and say the virtue of the ring like so [Fig.3] every time I will make the sign in a plain place6.
NB: Over the rings the incenses or suffumigation that are needed to operate are noted, which you will find in each ring.
The First Ring
[Fig.4.Daleph. The incense musk7]
To win at any sort of game, always.
During the first mansion of the moon you will make a ring of quicksilver, formed and goldened8 and you will set in it a stone called `cat`s eye` upon which you will write this name: Daleph with the needle and when you finish, you will conjure it, saying: `I conjure you Daleph, that as soon as I make this sign in the earth [Fig.5] I will be victorious at all the games and with whom[ever] I will play` and then suffumigate it and make the sign in that place where it cannot be unmade, and for as long as [it will be there] you will be always victorious.
The Second Ring
To go about being invisible to any person.
[Fig.6. Astaroth9. Skin of a noctule10]
During the second mansion of the moon you will make a ring of lead and you will set in it a paragon stone11 and you will write this name: Astaroth with the needle and this being done, you will conjure, saying: `I command you Astaroth, that [when] I will make this sign in the earth [Fig.7] I will be always invisible to all creatures, for as long as I will not unmake the sign I will be invisible` where all the signs are to be made, where they will not be undone12.
The Third Ring
To make onself loved by whichever woman you want.
[Fig.8. Surbisach. Her hair13]
During the third mansion of the moon you will make a ring of copper and you will set in it the stone emerald or celeste14 and on it`s back15 write: Surbisach. And this being done, conjure it saying: `I conjure you, Surbisach, that as soon as I make with this ring this sign [Fig.9] in the earth, such-and-such will love me in a way in which she will do that which I desire and will not love another but me` and when the sign will be unmade, the love will cease.
The Fourth Ring
To obtain whatever favor you want from whichever person you want.
[Fig.10.Methe. Orange peel16]
During the fourth mansion of the moon you will make a ring of tin and you will set in it a Sapphire or a Celeste stone and you will write: Methe, and once this being done, you will conjure it saying: `I command you Methe, that as soon as I make this sign with this ring [Fig.11] in the earth, the Prince N. will do for me such-and-such favor` and as set always for any ring, make the sign where it cannot be unmade and observe the rest as above.
The Fifth Ring
To make oneself be loved by any Prince you want.
During the fifth mansion of the moon you will make a ring of tin and you will set in it an emerald stone and write: Fusariel, and this being done, you will conjure it saying: `I command you Fusariel, that as soon as I make this sign in the earth [Fig.13] I must become beloved by such-and-such Prince N. and extremely well regarded` and then suffumigate it as it must be done with all the others and make the sign that once unmade will cease the effect.
The Sixth Ring
To cure any sort of feverish ailment
[Fig.14.Asmodeus. Red sandalwood]
During the sixth mansion of the moon you will make a ring of tin in which you will set a sapphire or zalla stone18 and write: Asmodee and this being done, conjure it saying: `I command you Asmodee, that as soon as I make with this ring, this sign [Fig.15] such-and-such person will quench the fever they have` and the sign must be made where no dogs may pass because the fever will return.
The Seventh Ring
To catch in a beasts` hunt as much as you please.
During the seventh mansion of the moon you will make a ring of silver and you will set in it a cristal stone or a diamond20 and write the name: Astafal and this being done, conjure it saying: `I command you Astafal, that as soon as I make this sign in the earth, [Fig.17] I will be able to catch all the game that I like on that day` and then when you get back you will unmake the sign and the virtue of the sign will cease.
The Eighth Ring
To catch as much as much fish as you like.
[Fig.18.Emes. Root of `Felie`21]
In the eighth mansion of the moon you will make a ring of silver and you will set in it a garnet stone and write on the back15 Emes, and this being done, conjure it saying: `I command you Emes, that as soon as I make this sign [Fig.19] in the earth and as long as I do not unmake it I will catch all those fish that I will want.` And upon returning from fishing unmake the sign, and you must do the same with all of them.
The Ninth Ring.
To make whichever person you want sick.
[Fig.20.Sonotras. Root of olive tree.]
During the ninth mansion of the moon you will make a ring of lead and you will set in it a black gem and write the name: Sonotras, and this being done, conjure it saying: `I command you Sonotras, that as soon as I make this sign [Fig.21] in the earth, such-and-such N. person will be afflicted with such-and-such N. sickness, not being able to be cured until I [erase] this here sign, and when I want to unmake the sign` like it is being done in all the others and do as above.
The Tenth Ring
To be victorious over all one`s enemies.
[Fig.22. Sichel. Cauliflower]
During the tenth mansion of the moon you will make a Ring of iron and you will set in it a red garnet stone and write: Sichel, and this being done, conjure it upon the new table saying: `I conjure you Sichel, that as soon as I make this sign [Fig.23] in earth, I will be able to not be defeated with any occasion or at any moment, by any enemy of mine`. And you must make the sign in a place where it cannot be unmade by anyone, like all the others.
The Eleventh Ring
To make a person sleep for as long as you like.
NASQVIEL. Cretan Spice. This is
During the eleventh mansion of the moon you will make a ring of silver and you will set in it a gem23 and write: Biqviel, and this being done, conjure it as above saying: `I command you Biqviel, that as soon as I make this [Fig.25] sign in the earth with this ring, such-and-such N. person will fall asleep and will sleep until I will unmake this sign` and once unmade, the sleep will cease, like you will do with all the other rings.
The Twelfth Ring
To not be prosecuted by enemies in Justice.24
[Fig.26. Biqviel. Willow bark. This is ring 1125]
During the twelfth mansion of the moon you will make a Ring of copper and you will set in it an emerald or a green gem and write: Binas, and this being done, conjure it saying: `I command you Binas, that as soon as I make this sign in earth [Fig.27] it will not be possible for me to become prosecuted by the ministers of Justice and for as long as the sign lasts I shall have no more fear of this` but once unmade you will be prosecuted as in before.
The Thirteenth Ring
To be loved by all those with whom you associate and deal.
[Fig.28. Ramiel. Dove`s feathers.]
During the thirteenth mansion of the moon you will make a ring of copper and you will set in it an emerald or a green stone and write: Ramiel, and this being done, conjure it saying: `I command you Ramiel, that as soon as I make this sign in the earth [Fig.29] and until I unmake it, all [those with whom I deal and associate with must love me, and once the sign unmade] the benevolence will cease.
The Fourteenth Ring.
To not be harmed by any sort of weapon.
[Fig.30. Rafan. Jupiper seeds]
During the fourteenth mansion of the moon you will make a Ring of iron and you will set in it a red garnet gem and write: Rafan, and this being done, conjure it saying: `I command you Rafan, that when I make this sign [Fig.31] in the earth, no sort of weapon will be able to hurt me` and you must make it where it cannot be unmade, like all the others, because its virtue will cease.
End of the Necromantic Rings
1. Necromantic. While the term itself might be translated etymologically as `summoning of the dead` that is, the use of the souls of the dead in rituals designed to find information or perform tasks, the term negromancy (nigromanteia, nigromancia) is used here in a broader sense of summoning demons or dealing with infernal powers, much to the same use.
2. A silver needle, as pure as it may be, would serve no practical purpose in engraving metals. Since there are hard metals as well as soft ones prescribed in the treatise, including iron, and precious stones as well, it`s likely we`re dealing with a steel needle or burin, described in other works along with its consecration.
3. The treatise mentions inscribing the name, but not the character of the spirit, a clear overlook since the images show a stone engraved with each spirit`s name and one seal on either side of it. Still, there is a problem about the placement of the name. The designs show them on the face of the stone, but the text uses the words a torno to refer to the way the names are engraved. In modern Italian, attorno
is across, but taken separately, a torno means on the back.
4. N. son of N. In the original, talis means `such and such` but the formula N.,such and such, son of N. such and such, seemed a bit superfluous. Here the operator declines his identity by the name of his mother, not his father, a very common practice in Jewish and Arabic magic. This would suggest an Arabic origin, much like all the works where there is a great importance assigned to the signs and the astrological timings (specifically, the lunar mansions).
5. The whole conjuration is in Latin up to here, and it continues in Italian with the charge. This shows both reverence to the original method copied from an earlier work and lack of a good command of the Latin language, enough to copy a text, but not enough to formulate the charge to the spirit coherently. This suggests, despite the title mentioning that the original Italian was housed in the Vatican, that the manuscript was likely not penned by a cleric, and not even by a highly literate man.
6. The phrase is poorly constructed in the original, the author states the fact that he will make the sign and spreak the virtue but does not continue to the gain of the virtue of the ring and its effecs, but reverts to the fact that he is making the sign.
7. Muschio means both moss and musk. We could presume that both are likely candidates, and moss would not be so strange since other materials include animal or bird parts, but the fact that it is preceded by the indicative incense makes the matter clearer.
8. Quicksilver (Hg) being a liquid metal cannot be used by itself to make anything solid, let alone that object be gilded. I have used the word goldened instead of indorato because this indicates the use of an amalgam of gold. Gold amalgam in a low concentration was used by gilders to apply thin layers of gold to other metals, mainly silver, but if the gold incorporated in the mercury was plentiful, the whole mass would solidify into a new metal (amalgam) that could be manipulated safely.
9. Astaroth is the first well-known demon from the list of the rings (later we see Asmodeus as well), so there can`t be any ambiguity as to the nature of the spirits employed. The author not only admits that but also advertises it in the title.
10. Nottola. The common noctule (Nyctalus noctula), a type of bat.
11. Pietra paragon. This translation is problematic as the expressions usually designates a measuring stone.
12. This passage suggests that the operator does not go about with a ring or two making these signs where he may, but rather that he has a special place set aside for the signs made on the earth, kept away from human or animal habitation and protected from the elements that might disturb or erase them. Furthermore, it`s likely that he makes more than one ring, conjures them and traces the signs in his place and keeps the rings for use as needed. The social status of an individual who can afford copying rare magical works, a secret place for practice and crafting of bespoke jewelry is likely to be a high one, perhaps the lesser nobility. This is by no means a description of the copyist of the manuscript or of the irregular users of its contents, but rather of the ideal candidate who might engage in regular use and the very author of the treatise.
13. The use of human products in necromantic operations is nothing to be surprised about, but in such cases one cannot help but be amused. Obtaining hair from a desired woman was a task in and of itself, requiring a trusting relationship with the operator`s target, or at least a well-defined bribe-incented friendship with her entourage. The hair is used in this procedure since it is a part of the female anatomy ruled by Venus, the tutelary planetary force of this ring, as the use of copper and emerald suggest.
14. Celeste stone might be Celestine (Strontium Sulphate) or another blue or green stone, to be identified.
15. A torno. The problematic issue of where the name should be written. Attorno means Across, while a torno means on the back. It is possible that the name was engraved on the back of the stone or on the ring, beneath the stone, being hidden from view, as some recipes for other rings suggest (Cf. Skinner/Rankine/Barron, A collection of magical secrets, Avalonia, 2009, p.67, the ring of the spirit Merazim)
16. Melangola: Seville or Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium)
17. There is no suffumigation listed for this ring.
18. Zalla stone is yet unidentified, but should be a blue stone, softer and cheaper than Saphire, perhaps lazulite (Arabic, Al-Zul, The Heaven)
19. This ring does not have a suffumigation either.
20. As diamond was extremely hard to cut with ordinary tools, it is not only obvious that the needle is not a silver one, but the theory that the name is engraved on the ring beneath the stone seems much more credible. This of course in the unlikely scenario that someone ever constructed these rings and met with technical difficulties such as engraving a name on a diamond with a silver needle.
21. Felie. Unable to indentify this plant.
22. Fig.24 has the name Binas written, with the correction Biquiel, and the seal of Binas on it. The marginal note says in Latin `This is ring 12` I am unable to tell what Specie Greta is but it is translated as Greek or Cretan Spice, and might be mastic.
23. No mention what sort of gem this might be, but the lunar nature of the ring might require a white softer stone, different from diamond, crystal or garnet that are called stones in all the other silver rings.
24. The phrase is ambivalent and can be translated as `To not be hindered by the enemies of Justice` meaning to not be falsely accused of untrue or unfair things in a court of law, or `To not be prosecuted by enemies in Justice` meaning to avoid legal responsibility in any matters, especially when guilty. The overtone of the whole work and the conjuration shows us that it is the latter rather than the former.
25. The ring shown bears the name Biqviel with the seal of Biqviel and the Latin note `This is ring 11`.
26. The portion in square brackets was omitted in the text, but written in the left margin. I have completed the text for the sake of legibility.
Original graphics of the rings.